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Die Fledermaus archives historical documents
Time Event
1985 Formation of Hartford Colts; Krew de Cuir, SF; Men in Boots, Vancouver BC; MSC Iceland; PEP, Phoenix; River City Outlaws, San Antonio; Seattle Dungeon Guild; Texas Renegades, Houston; and Total Devotion and Alliance Club of Atlanta.
1985 People Exchanging Power (PEP) an SM club open to all genders and orientations is founded in Phoenix by Nancy Ava Miller, who goes on to found several similar organizations across the country.
1985 The Tom of Finland foundation, a not for profit corporation formed to preserve the art of Tom of Finland, and to promote erotic art and artists, is founded in Los Angeles.
ADDENDUM: Tom of Finland - MOCA U - MOCAtv (5:29 Video)
from The Museum of Contemporary Art
Nov 1, 2013

Famed erotic artist Tom of Finland made as much of an impact on the lives of individual men as he did on the history of masculine representation. On a palm tree-lined street in Echo Park sits the Tom of Finland Foundation, a site that testifies to both personal and historical memory. Foundation co-founder and former Bruce Weber model Durk Dehner met Tom because of a compelling image on a bathroom wall, and soon became the artist's muse, patron, and longtime friend. In this short video, Dehner and foundation vice president S.R. Sharp discuss Tom's radical imaginary, his command of the gay male gaze, how Tom of Finland got his name, and why Tom made the move to Los Angeles. Dehner has preserved the home he shared with Tom as a homage to Tom's legacy, and to this day, the home remains open to the public.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1985 The Defenders of Mithra begin sponsorship of the Oregon State Leather Woman title.
1985 Publication of
  • Beauty's Release the third in the Beauty trilogy by A. N. Roquelaure (Anne Rice)
  • Exit to Eden by Anne Rampling, which turns out to be another pseudonym for Anne Rice
  • Slaves of the Empire by Aaron Travis in book form after being serialized in Drummer
  • Physical Interrogation Techniques by Richard W. Krousher. A how-to manual for interrogation & torture
  • Torture by Edward Peters
  • Torture in Brazil a secret study by the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo, English edition in 1986
1985 Norman Breslow and colleagues become the first researchers to report the existence of non-prostitute female sadomasochists. Their results, which contradict one of the most cherished beliefs among Freudians, behaviorists, and sociologists are not accepted by the research community until the late 1990's
ADDENDUM: Here are four articles by N. Breslow listed in the bibliography of Sadomasochism: Powerful Pleasures edited by Peggy J. Kleinplatz and Charles Moser.
  • Breslow, N. (1987). Locus of Control, Desirability of Control, and Sadomasochists. Psychological Reports 61, 995-1001.
  • Breslow, N. (1989). Sources of Confusion in the Study and Treatment of Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 4, 263-274.
  • Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley, J. (1985). On the prevalence and roles of females in the sadomasochistic subculture: Report on an empirical study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 303-317.
  • Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley,J. (1986). Comparisons among heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual male sadomasochists. Journal of Homosexuality 13(1), 83-107.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1985 The Fraser Report, Report of Special Commission on Pornography and Prostitution is issued in Canada. It sets three tiers of "obscenity". Sexually violent or "degrading" activities are deemed worse than everything except child pornography.
1985 Leon Golub retrospective at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. Golub's subject matter is larger than life size canvases of instances of torture, often based on actual cases.
1985 Artist Daniel Kelly retrospective at Corsh Gallery in Chicago. Kelly's art blends religious, sexual and sm themes.
1985 Peter Thomas begins his lengthy service as Coordinator of the Mid America Conference of Clubs.
1985, Jan. The first Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather contest held in Washington DC. Sponsored by Centaur MC.
1985, Apr 13 Val Martin Val Martin, legendary porn star, community activist, 2nd runner up at International Mr. Leather 1980, best known for his role in Born To Raise Hell, dies from complications due to AIDS. Roger Earl discovered and cast Val Martin in the lead in this incredible S/M film. Born to Raise Hell brought Val Martin international prominence in gay leather communities around the world. Val was also a pivotal part of the Mark IV Bathhouse raids in Los Angeles, CA when the LAPD freed the slaves in 1976.
1985, May 12 A pink granite memorial to the homosexual victims of Nazi concentration camps is unveiled in Germany.
1985, May Patrick Toner of San Francisco becomes the 7th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago.
1985, June Steve Reiswig of Seattle becomes the 6th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco.
1985, June 29 The French National Assembly passes a bill prohibiting discrimination against gay men and lesbians.
1985, July Ringold Alley, a favorite nighttime cruising ground for leathermen, is the site of the first Ringold Alley Fair, a charity fundraiser sponsored by Up Your Alley Productions, a group in which IML 85 Patrick Toner plays a very prominent role.
1985, July
ADDENDUM: Rock Hudson --- Hollywood leading man, movie star, and close personal friend of President Ronald Regan --- was hospitalized in Paris. On July 25th he issued a press release revealing that he had AIDS. He had been diagnosed in 1984. He was the first major celebrity to go public with that news.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1985, Sept. 6 - 9 Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 14 in Douglas MI. Harold Cox of Wilkes Barre, PA, receives the Caligula Award.
1985, September 17
ADDENDUM: In response to a reporter's question, President Ronald Reagan called AIDS a top priority for his administration. It was the first time he mentioned AIDS in public. He had been elected in late 1980.

SEE ALSO: Lopez, German. The Reagan administration's unbelievable response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic Vox. Updated Dec 1, 2016

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1985, October 2
ADDENDUM: Congress allocated nearly $190 million for AIDS research. On the same day, Rock Hudson passed away at age 59 in Beverly Hills, California.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1985, Nov. Mineshaft DoorThe Mineshaft is closed by New York City officials for "health" reasons. Subsequently, the Leather Archives & Museum receives most of Wally Wallace’s papers from the mineshaft. And later, the papers from the LURE, the LURE Dress Code sign and the LURE Angels that once graced the ceiling of the Mineshaft.
1985, Nov. 11 GMSMA holds its first Leatherfest in New York City.
1985, Nov. 13 Nargret Roff, an out lesbian, is elected Mayor of Manchester England. The first out gay or lesbian to be elected to mayoral office in Great Britain.
Time Event
1986 Formation of Bournemouth LSMC, UK; Club Mud, Rio Nido, CA; Essex Leather MSC, UK; Der Ledermeister, Syracuse NY; The National Leather Association, Seattle; Portland Power and Trust, OR; and Utica Tri's NY.
1986, Jan 10 GLAAD, Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation is established in New York City.
1986 Portland Power and Trust, a woman to woman SM organization is formed in Portland Oregon by Sallee Huber, Sashie Hyatt, and Judy Tallwing McCarthy.
1986 Lee Willis begins The Studworks in Seattle and quickly becomes recognized as the foremost artisan at creating studded leather work.
1986 Publication of
  • The Sexual Perspective, Homosexuality and Art in the last 100 years in the West by Emmanuel Cooper, Second  Edition 1994.
  • Sex Magick, a collection of poems by Ian Young in Toronto
  • Sexual Magic, a collection of SM photographs together with thoughts about SM by the subjects of the photos, most of whom are members of the SM organization Janus, self published by San Francisco photographer Michael A. Rosen.
1986 The film 9 1/2 Weeks directed by Adrian Lyne, staring Kim Basinger and Mickey Rourke opens in the USA.
ADDENDUM: According to leatherpedia.org in an entry about Drummer magazine:

Guy Baldwin ran a small classified ad in Drummer, asking for contact from other kink-fluent professional mental-health providers. He hoped to build a network of like-minded professionals like himself. As the volume of responses became more than Baldwin could handle, Race Bannon, Baldwin’s long-time friend, came forward to collate and computerize the information and assumed responsibility for the data. Bannon eventually published it online, greatly expanding Baldwin’s initial network of therapists to include other kink-friendly medical, dental, and legal professionals, giving birth to the vital international resource now known as the Kink-Aware Professionals List. Today the list is managed by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom as a free service to all.

contrib. Ambrosio April 4, 2023.
1986, Apr. 15 Death of French writer Jean Genet who had spent most of his adolescence and young adulthood in prison. A prolific writer his works were filled with raw sexuality, often with SM overtones. Examples are his play The Balcony and the novels A Thief's Journal, Our Lady of the Flowers, and Querelle of Brest. (Birth: Dec. 19, 1910)
1986, May Scott Tucker, of Philadelphia is selected as the 8th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago. Jim Ed Thompson, former editor of Gay Bondage and Action Male, is first runner up.
1986, June Mike Murray of San Diego becomes the 7th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco.
1986, June The National Leather Association is formed in Seattle by Steve Maidhof with the help of a few other leather men and women.
1986, June 30 The US Supreme Court upholds Georgia's sodomy laws in a 5-4 ruling on the conviction of Michael Hardwick for activities that took place in the privacy of his own bedroom.
1986, July 4 New Zealand passes a homosexual law reform bill extending basic rights to gay men and lesbians.
1986, Aug. 22 Desmodus Inc. (Tony DeBlase & partner), publisher of DungeonMaster, purchases Drummer, Mach, and Foreskin Quarterly magazines from Alternate Publishing (John Embry). Desmodus relocates from Chicago to San Francisco.
1986, Sept. 5 - 8 Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 15 at Douglas MI. John Enteman of New York City receives the Caligula Award.
1986, Oct. The first Living in Leather Conference is hosted in Seattle by the newly formed National Leather Association.
1986, Nov. GMSMA spearheads organizing a special Leather-S/M contingent for the 1987 March on Washington.
1986, Fall Seattle Leather Woman title begins.
1986, Fall In a literature survey from 1977 to 1984, Breslow and colleagues can only find five empirical studies on sadomasochism. Of these, only one study (Spengler 1977) gives enough data to be evaluated or replicated. In their own study on male sadomasochists, Breslow and colleagues point out that there is no data that would justify subdividing sadomasochists into groups such as sadist and masochist based on role preference.
ADDENDUM: Here are four articles by N. Breslow listed in the bibliography of Sadomasochism: Powerful Pleasures edited by Peggy J. Kleinplatz and Charles Moser.
  • Breslow, N. (1987). Locus of Control, Desirability of Control, and Sadomasochists. Psychological Reports 61, 995-1001.
  • Breslow, N. (1989). Sources of Confusion in the Study and Treatment of Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 4, 263-274.
  • Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley, J. (1985). On the prevalence and roles of females in the sadomasochistic subculture: Report on an empirical study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 303-317.
  • Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley,J. (1986). Comparisons among heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual male sadomasochists. Journal of Homosexuality 13(1), 83-107.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
Time Event
1987 Formation of Boston Ducks; Diablo DV8's, Walnut Creek CA; Firedancers LLC, Dallas; Griffins MC, DE; and Trident International LA.
1987 First International Gay Rodeo Association (IGRA) Finals Rodeo.
1987 The British police conclude Operation Spanner with the arrests of several gay men participating in a private party where consensual SM was going on.
1987 Desmodus Inc. and Zeus Studios jointly publish a volume of still photos from Chicago Hellfire Club's Inferno 15.
1987 Publication of
  • The Green Hotel by Gordon Hoban writing as Tom Hardy
  • Hell's Angels by Yves Lavigne
  • Slavery in the Arab World by Murray Gordon in France, first American edition 1989
  • Capri, a periodical dedicated to gay history by Schwules Museum in Berlin
1987 The sexologist Charles Moser and psychologist Eugene E. Levitt publish the results of an empirical study on sadomasochists.
1987 The German SM-group Suendikat Hamburg is formed. By 1995, it will have about 100 members, roughly half of them women. This is the first known heterosexual SM group in Germany.
1987, Feb. 2 First Portland Leather Woman contest won by Judy Tallwing McCarthy.
1987, Feb 11 Death of D. Lyn Sterling, known as "The Leathermaker". He originated many unique designs in leather clothing (and toys), including chaps with the zippers on the outside! and was for many years Leathermaker to the stars in Los Angeles.
1987, Mar. 21 Judy Tallwing McCarthy of Portland, OR, is named the first International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1987, Mar. 24 The newly formed ACT UP holds its first demonstration in New York City.
1987, Mar. 25 Robert D. Reite begins SM Board in Los Angeles, one of the first telephone bulletin boards specifically catering to SM men. SM board is now accessible by Direct dial, telnet, and the World Wide Web. it celebrated it's 10th anniversary in 1997.
1987, May David Rhodes begins publication of The Leather Journal in Los Angeles.
1987, May The National Leather Association holds its first May Day conference in Seattle.  T. K. Cuellar is named the first Mr. National Leather Association and Jan Brown of Vancouver BC is named the first Ms. National Leather Association.
1987, May Thomas Karasch of Hamburg, Germany, is named the 9th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Park West in Chicago.
1987, June Mark Alexander of Los Angeles becomes the 8th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco.
1987 Following the traffic of leathermen cruising, Up Your Alley moves it's San Francisco leather charity street fair from Ringold Alley to Dore Alley, across from the Powerhouse.
1987, Aug. 1 The first Mr. & Ms. Vancouver BC Leather Contest is held.
1987, Aug. 7 Over a hundred people protest a British law against same sex hand holding and other public displays of affection by holding a "kiss-in" at London's Picadilly Circus.
1987, Aug. 28-31 NLA's Living In Leather II is held in Seattle. Tony DeBlase of San Francisco, and Susie Bright of Denver, are named NLA Man and Woman of the year.
1987, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 16 in Douglas MI. Robin Tutt of Fire Island Pines, NY, receives the Caligula Award.
1987, Oct. 10 A National Leather Conference is held in Washington DC on the day before the march. Barry Douglas of GMSMA is the prime organizer, NLA organizes the panels. Judy Tallwing McCarthy gives keynote address. Thousands attend and the next day march, for the first time, behind a banner using the phrase "Safe-Sane-Consensual".
1987, Oct. 11 Hundreds of thousands, including thousands of leather people of all orientations, march and rally in Washington DC for the 1987 March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay rights.
ADDENDUM: Organizers displayed the AIDS Memorial Quilt on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. for the first time.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
Time Event
The Erotec Violet Wand ADDENDUM: Donnie Rice began selling wand kits to the BDSM Community on the West Coast under the company name of EROTEC.

In addition, Donnie Rice invented the “Lighting hands” body contact pad for these wand kits which allowed the users to pass the high frequency electrial current over their own body and jump to other people or objects around them.

He invented the Edison/Tesla adapter for the wand which allowed regular light bulbs to be used in these kits. And he offered several electrodes made for Tesla Coils .

EROTEC sold several thousand kits wholesale to BDSM/adult stores throughout the United States until Donnie Rice's death in 1997. Afterwards, Le’ Rice continued to run the company until the spring of 2002.

SOURCE: Le' Rice AKA Freewine

IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022. Updated 12/01/2022
1988 Formation of Atlanta S&M Solidarity (ASS); COMMAND, Baltimore; Panthers L/L, Atlanta; Gay Male S/M Cooperative (GMSMC), Philadelphia; New York Bondage Club; and Southbay Leather and Uniform Group (SLUG), San Jose. Knights Templar, SF, disbands.
1988 Jaye Evans opens the Atlanta Eagle as the first definite leather bar in that city.
1988 Establishment of the Human Sexuality Collection at Cornell University Library. David B. Goodstein, longtime publisher of The Advocate, and Bruce Voeller, early leader of the National Gay Task Force, are the driving forces behind its creation. The Mariposa Education and Research Foundation donated it's huge collection of papers, photographs, art, films, etc. to form the core of the new Cornell collection.
1988 John Stout, a gay man living in West Hollywood, wins a legal battle with his landlord over his right to fly a rainbow flag from his apartment balcony.
1988 Publication of
  • The Lesbian SM Safety Manual edited by Pat Califia
  • The Tom of Finland Retrospective a coffee table book on Tom's art and life
  • First Hand Events #1 in magazine format, featuring the International Mr. Leather contest. #2, also published in 1988 covers the Gay Rodeo circuit. No further issues were published
  • Ecclesia Militans, The Inquisition by Miroslav Hroch and Anna Skybova in Germany. English edition in 1990
ADDENDUM: Pat Califia originally gathered some of the articles in the The Lesbian SM Safety Manual for the Lesbian Sex Mafia's new members orientation. Three of the articles were written by Diane Vera: "Kinds of Masochism and/or Submission", Nine Degrees of Submission, and Temporary Consensual "Slave Contract".

(A similar unattrbutted article also named "Temporary Consensual 'Slave Contract'" exists online. It appears to be a revision of Diane Vera's original article.)

contrib. Ambrosio. Jan 29, 2023.
ADDENDUM: Jack McGeorge inaugurates his home dungeon in Woodbridge VA. Jack’s dungeon will be one of the central party locations for the Mid-Atlantic scene over the next 20 years.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1988, Jan Desmodus Inc. publishes the first issue of The Sandmutopia Guardian and Dungeon Journal, a SM how-to publication similar to DungeonMaster but written for all genders and sexual orientations. Carol Truscott is editor.
1988, Feb. Barry Douglas of New York City and Cookie Andrews-Hunt of Seattle are named the Leather Journal man and woman of the year. These are The Leather Journal's first such awards and the beginning of what will grow into the Pantheon of Leather awards.
1988, Feb. Lambda Delta Lambda at the University of California, Los Angeles, becomes the first lesbian sorority to gain official recognition from a US college or university.
1988, Feb. 10 The Gold Coast, Chicago's best known leather bar, closes after 28 years of operation.
1988, Feb. 13 A conference of Leather-S/M men and women is held in Dallas, an outgrowth of the Oct. '87 conference in Washington DC. It's purpose is to organize a national organization. After two days of heated debate a statement of purpose and some organizational guidelines are adopted, and a steering committee is elected. The group begins functioning under the name Safe Sane Consensual Adults, SSCA.
1988, Feb. 24 Lambda Delta Lambda, the first lesbian sorority in America is officially recognized by UCLA. One month later, the first (admittedly) gay college fraternity will be formed.
1988, March Shan Carr of Portland, Oregon, is selected as the second International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1988, May NLA's May Day Conference in Seattle, Steve Maidhof and Cheri Mattise are selected as Mr. and Ms. NLA.
1988, May Dave Pallone, a 10 year veteran National League umpire is fired because of his Homosexuality.
1988, May Michael Pereyra of San Diego becomes the 10th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Vic Theatre in Chicago.
1988, June 21 Art Agnos, Mayor of San Francisco, Declares Alan Selby Day to honor the man often called the "Mayor of Folsom St."
1988, June 22
ADDENDUM: Passing of activist Leonard Matlovich due to complications from HIV/AIDS. It was six weeks after speaking in front of the California State Capitol during the March on Sacramento for Gay and Lesbian Rights and less than a month before his birthday.

In 1975, he had purposely outted himself in order to combat the ban on homosexual service men. It lead to his appearing on the cover of the Sept. 8, 1975 issue of TIME Magazine.

Maybe not in my lifetime, but we are going to win in the end. ~ TSgt. Leonard Matlovich, September 19th, 1975

His tombstone is located in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C. It does not bear his name. Instead it bears two pink triangles, the designation "A Gay Vietname Veteran," and his epitaph: WHEN I WAS IN THE MILITARY THEY GAVE ME A MEDAL FOR KILLING TWO MEN AND A DISCHARGE FOR LOVING ONE. It is located in the same row as J. Edgar Hoover and Clyde Tolson.
Leonard's internationally known gravestone in Historic Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
IMAGE SOURCE: LeonardMatlovich.com
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1988, Aug. GMSMA establishes the Hocutt-Ferguson fund to assist leather people with AIDS.
1988, Sept. 24 The Mr. Drummer contest is switched from the June Gay Pride weekend to coincide with the Folsom Street Fair in September. In advertising Tony DeBlase begins calling it "San Francisco Leather Pride Weekend". Ron Zehel of Columbus, OH becomes the 9th Mr. Drummer.
1988, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 17 in Douglas MI. Wally Wallace of New York City, receives the Caligula Award.
1988, Oct. 8-10 NLA's Living in Leather III Conference is held in Seattle. Alan Selby and Gayle Rubin, both of San Francisco, are named NLA man and woman of the year.
1988, Oct. 10 The SSCA steering committee merges with the National Leather Association, SSCA members are added to the NLA board of directors and the NLA accepts the statement of purpose adopted at the Dallas Conference. Work begins on bylaws.
Time Event
1989 Leather United Chicago Formation of Affirmation Leathermen; Boston Unified Leather Legion (BULL); Brotherhood of Pain, Houston; Knights on Iron MC, San Diego; Leather United, Chicago; Menamore LLC, Wilmington NC; Mike's Men, Boston; Omaha Players Club; Oregon Activists of SM (ORGASM); Rangers, Inc., Cleveland; Sacramento Leather Association; Seattle Men in Leather; Silver Dolphins LLC, Corpus Christi; Trash, Vancouver BC; and Trusted Servants, SF.
1989 Formation of the NY Renegades by Tom Hom, Charlie Zurenko, and Darrin Kimmel
1989 California Motor Club of San Francisco disbands after 26 years.
1989 The German SM-group "freieSMuenchen" is formed in Munich. By 1995 it will have 50 members about 30% of them women.
1989 Stormy Leather opens at 1158 Howard in San Francisco. This is probably the first leather shop owned by, and operated primarily for, women.
1989 Publication of
  • Gentle Warriors by Geoff Mains
  • Macho Sluts by Pat Califia
  • The Language of Sadomasochism, A Glossary and Linguistic Analysis by Thomas E Murray and Thomas R. Murrell
1989 Fantasy 98, organized by Dustin Logan, brings a great many title holders to Omaha Nebraska for a weekend of interaction that inspires the term "sash bash" and raises over $9,000 for local charities.
ADDENDUM: According to Richard Kadrey in his article "alt.sex.bondage" on WIRED (Jun 1, 1994 12:00 PM), the alt.sex.bondage newsgroup on Usenet was created in 1991. It was the first newgroup about BDSM. Although, the first use of the term BDSM doesn't occur there until June 20, 1991.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 28, 2023.
1989, Feb. The Leather Journal names Alan Selby man of the year and names Shan Carr and Judy Tallwing McCarthy jointly Women of the year.
1989, March Trash, a woman to woman SM organization is founded in Vancouver BC. Disbands in 1990.
1989, March 9 Robert Mapplethorpe dies of AIDS in New York City.
1989, March Susie Shepherd of Portland, OR, is named the third International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1989, May 8 Fred Halsted, erotic film actor, director, producer, as well as leather writer and magazine publisher, commits suicide in Los Angeles.
1989, May NLA: Seattle holds May Day Conference, Guy Baldwin and Jan Lyon are selected Mr. and Ms. NLA.
1989, May 28 Tony DeBlase presents his design for a leather pride flag to the audience at International Mr. Leather, the first time the flag is presented to the public.
Leather, Latex, and BDSM pride - Light
DESCRIPTION: Nine equally sized horizontal stripes (from top to bottom: four of alternating black and royal blue, one white, and four of alternating royal blue and black) with a tilted red heart in the canton.
IMAGE SOURCE: Icey at English Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1989, May 28 Guy Baldwin of Los Angeles becomes the 11th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Vic theatre in Chicago.
1989, June The Leather Pride flag is carried by the leather contingent in the Portland OR pride parade, it's first appearance at such an event. (A week preceding pride parades in San Francisco and New York City, where it is also flown).
1989, June The Corcoran Gallery in Washington DC, cancels a scheduled Robert Mapplethorpe exhibit because of pressure by anti-gay Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) and others.
1989, June 20th Anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, GMSMA organizes a massive leather contingent for the New York City parade.
1989, June 20 Death of bar owner, and guidebook publisher, Bob Dameron. Among the Los Angeles and San Francisco bars he owned are the Hideaway, Febe's and the SF Eagle. But he was also the originator of the bar guide that helped us all find what we were looking for wherever we were.
1989, June 30 Laser artist Rockne Krebs projects the photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe on the exterior walls of the Corcoran Gallery in Washington DC. The exhibit of Mapplethorpe's work, scheduled to open on this day, had been canceled due to political pressure from Jesse Helms and other conservative members of Congress.
1989, July 26 US Senate passes the NEA funding bill with the "Helms Amendment." This is probably the first time SM is mentioned in a US law.
1989, Sept. Brian Dawson of Los Angeles becomes the tenth Mr. Drummer and Dieter Edwards is named the first Drummerboy of the year at the contest in San Francisco.
1989, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 19 in Douglas MI. Fred "Ollie" Stewart receives the Caligula Award. Jim Ward is named the first recipient of the J Paul Eaton award.
1989, Oct. Cynthia Ann Slater, founder of the Society of Janus, dies of AIDS in San Francisco.
1989, Oct. 1 Axel and Eigil Axgil, a male couple, become the first to marry under Denmark's Same Sex Marriage registry.
1989, Oct. 7-9 NLA's Living in Leather IV conference is held in Portland, OR. Geoff Mains and Cynthia Slater receive the NLA Lifetime Achievement Awards. Dr. Nan Borrows gives the keynote address.
1989, Oct. 17 The Loma Parieta earthquake shakes the San Francisco Bay area virtually destroying the buildings containing the Drummer offices, the Lone Star Saloon and many other leather oriented businesses, as well as the homes of many leather people.
1989, Nov. 4 NLA: Los Angeles sponsors Bondage as Art show at Leonardogavici Art Gallery. Bondage themed paintings, drawings, collage, photography, and inanimate sculpture are augmented by living bondage sculptures created by numerous artists from around the country. Huge crowds attend, including LAPD and Fire Departments who close down the show due to overcrowding of the facility.
1989 Deaths: Bob Damron, bar owner and creator of the gay bar guide; Fred Halsted, porn star, film producer, writer, and magazine publisher; Sashie Hyatt, spouse of Judy Tallwing McCarthy and leatherdyke from Hell! organizer of many lesbian SM organizations, and driving force behind many leather dyke titleholders; Geoff Mains, author of Urban Aboriginals and Gentile Warriors
Time Event
1990 Formation of Bay Area Levi/Leather Society (BALLS), Corpus Christi; Bluegrass Colts, Lexington; Northwest Bears, Seattle; Omikron, Indianapolis; Tarheel Leather Club, Greensboro NC; Tri-State Gay Rodeo Association; and United Leatherfolk of Connecticut. Barbary Coasters MC, SF; Trash, BC; and Zodiacs, BC disband.
1990 Formation of the Betty Page Social Club, sponsor of Toronto's Fetish nights.
1990 Daddy and the Muscle Academy The Finnish Government awards a $50,000 grant towards the making of a documentary on the life and work of Tom of Finland, to be entitled Daddy and the Muscle Academy. The film gives voice to the life and creative impulse of the gay erotic artist known across the gay world as 'Tom of Finland'. Essentially an interview documentary with some very brief 'enactments' inspired by Tom's artwork, this is a long way from fetish pornography but is thought-provoking nonetheless.

Tom describes his early life in the Finnish army, in mundane jobs and, matter-of-factly, how he became inspired to put onto paper his exagerrated masculine fantasies of men in leather, uniforms and workwear.
1990 QSM (Quality SM) founded by Karen Mendelsohn starts a series of SM/fetish educational classes in San Francisco, that is still going strong as this is published.
1990 The newly formed Tarheel Leather Club of Greensboro North Carolina, takes on the formidable task of trying to unseat US Senator Jesse Helms R-NC. Their "Beat Jesse" campaign gains nationwide support, including that of IMsL Susie Sheperd with her t-shirt campaign.
1990 The US Census Bureau for the fist time includes a question on the census form that can help identify same sex couples. 69,200 female couples and 88,200 male couples self-identify.
1990 Release of USSM 1, the first of a series of four videos co-produced by Zeus and Drummer that depict real SM scenes with real SM players. There will eventually be four titles in this series. By 1995 they will be withdrawn from the US market due to persecution of the Los Angeles police.
1990 The 16 defendants in England's Operation Spanner case are brought to trial and convicted of assault and battery, because the judge rules that consent is not recognized, and even the bottoms who were consensually "assaulted" are deemed guilty!
1990 Publication of
  • Bad Boys & Tough Tattoos by Sam Steward
  • Some Dance to Remember by Jack Fritscher, a novel set in San Francisco's gay leather scene
  • Lights out in the Reptile House a novel by Jim Shepard, a novel with strong SM overtones
  • The Quest a short story collection by Ben George
  • Doc and Fluff a lesbian SM novel by Pat Califia
  • Mineshaft Nights by Leo Cardini, an accurate picture of this famous place by one of its former employees
  • From Female to Male, The Life of Jack Bee Garland by Louis Sullivan
  • Encyclopedia of Homosexuality a two volume set edited by Wayne R. Dynes
  • Coming Out Under Fire, The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two by Allan Berube
ADDENDUM: German musical project Enigma produces their first album, "MCMXC a.D." It includes the song "Sadeness (Part I)." The title of the song references Marquis de Sade. But while the name in Germany is "Sadeness (Part I)", in the UK and Japan it is released as "Sadness Part I."

The song featured samples of Gregorian vocals, a drum beat sampled from a James Brown song, flute, synthesizer, French lyrics (consisting of questions directed to the divine marquis), and orgasmic breathing.

It becomes an international hit and a staple of dungeon parties in the 1990s.

Enigma - Sadeness - Part i (Official Video)


Procedamus in pace
In nomine Christi, Amen

Cum angelis et pueris
Fideles inveniamur

Attollite portas, principes, vestras
Et elevamini, portae aeternales
Et introibit rex gloriae
Qius est iste Rex gloriae?

Sade, dis-moi

Sade, donne-moi

Procedamus in pace
In nomine Christi, Amen

Sade, dis-moi
Qu'est-ce que tu vas chercher?
Le Bien par le Mal
La Vertu par le Vice
Sade, dis-moi, pourquoi l'évangile du Mal?
Quelle est ta religion? Où sont tes fidèles?
Si tu es contre Dieu, tu es contre l'Homme
Sade, es-tu diabolique ou divin?

Sade, dis-moi (Hosanna)
Sade, donne-moi (Hosanna)
Sade, dis-moi (Hosanna)
Sade, donne-moi (Hosanna)

In nomine Christi, Amen

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 12, 2023.
1990, Jan. The German SM-group "gibS/Mir" is formed in Kiel. By 1995 it will have about 20 members.
1990, Feb. The Leather Journal names Dustin Logan, of Omaha Nebraska, and Jan Lyon of Seattle, man and woman of the year. Tony DeBlase is named business person of the year and GMSMA is named club of the year.
1990, Feb. 24 Malcom Forbes Death of Malcolm Forbes, American millionaire and publisher of Forbes magazine. After his death it was revealed that Forbes, who had been divorced in 1985, spent an increasing amount of time in his later years in leather, riding his motorcycle and visiting New York City's leather/SM bars and backrooms (born: Aug. 18, 1919)
1990, Mar. 3 A fire destroys Touche, a prominent Chicago Leather Bar.
1990, March New York City officials close safe-sex clubs in the wake of a club fire.
1990, March Gabriel Antolovich of San Diego becomes the fourth International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1990, May 10 Chuck Renslow awarded charter membership in the City of Chicago Gay & Lesbian Hall of Fame.
1990, May Mark Ryan of Boston is named the 12th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Vic Theatre in Chicago.
1989, May Susie Shepherd, International Ms. Leather 1989, is the first woman to appear on the cover of The Leather Journal #15. The decision is not popular with magazine readers.
1990, June In New York City GMSMA is invited to send a representative to a community meeting to be held at the residence of the Mayor.
1990, Summer Luke Owens' Master & Slave contest is held in Los Angeles and won by Mark Bowers and Bob Farrell.
1990, July 24 Congressman Bob Dornan reads his "psychopath" speech into the US Congressional Record, saying, "There are no psychopathic dark recesses of my mind that know how to handle sadism, masochism, bondage, discipline, or torture disguised as some sort of sexual thrill..."
1990, Autumn The German SM-group SMbH is formed in Hannover.
1990, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 19 in Douglas MI. William Robert Birtles receives the Caligula Award and Brian Drake the J. Paul Eaton award.
1990, Sept. 18 Clive Platman Clive Platman, Mr. Australia Drummer, presents Leather Pride Flag designer Tony DeBlase with an Australian version of the flag, incorporating the southern cross, from the Australian national flag, onto the original Leather Pride Flag design.
1990, Sept. 22 The cover of Drummer featuring Clive Platman holding the Australian Leather Flag Clive Platman of Melborne, Australia is named the 11th Mr. Drummer in the first truly International Mr. Drummer contest in San Francisco. John Siracusa is named Drummerboy of the year.
1990, Oct. 26-29 NLA's Living In Leather V conference is held in Portland, OR. Jim Richards is reelected Male co-chair and Shannon Kenedy is elected Female co-chair. The Rev. Troy Perry is keynote speaker and Chuck Renslow and Pat Califia are presented with lifetime achievement awards. The contest is switched to LIL from May Day and Howard Martin of Seattle and Ruth Marks of San Francisco win the Mr. and Ms. NLA titles. Jan Lyon presents the organization with a huge, spectacular, studded leather banner created by Lee Willis of the Studworks.
1990, Nov. 6 Deborah Glick becomes the first out gay or lesbian elected to the New York State Assembly.
1990, Dec. 5 Death of Robert Chesley, Author of the play Jerker, and many other works.
Time Event
1991 Formation of Baltimore Leather Association of the Deaf (BLADeaf); Chain of Command, San Antonio; DAMES, Milwaukee; Key West Wreckers LLC; Melbourne Leather Men; NLA: Houston; Ozbears Australia, Sydney; Patrol Uniform Club, San Antonio; Stars MC, Albany NY; Tri-State Wolfpack, Cincinnati; Three Rivers LC, Pittsburgh; and Unicorns of Madison, WI.
1991 Melbourne Leather Men become the first club to incorporated the Leather Pride flag design elements into their club colors.
1991 C-Space, a leather/SM/fetish educational service, which conducts lectures, demonstrations, etc. on various subjects, is organized in Seattle.
1991 Paul RubensActor Paul Reubens pleaded no contest to an indecent exposure charge after he was arrested for allegedly exposing himself in an adult cinema in Sarasota, Florida. After that plea, Reubens's Pee-wee Herman series of shows and films - aimed at children - came to an end. However he has had supporting roles in a number of films since then, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Blow.
1991 Publication of
  • Frisk by Dennis Cooper, a highly controversial novel full of violence and terminal scenes
  • Leather Rouges and Rouges to Remember by Bill Lee (R. L. Warner)
  • Understanding the Male Hustler by Sam Steward
  • A Breviary of Torment poems by Thomas Cashet
  • Master's Counterpoints by Larry Townsend, the first in a series of gay mystery novels with a leather theme
  • The Joy of Sexual Fantasy by Dr. Andrew Stanway
  • Leathermen Speak Out, An Anthology on Leathersex Edited by Jack Ricardo
  • Zur Strafbarkeit sado-masochistischer Koerperverletzung by German lawyer Valentin Sitzmann. His analysis of German federal law comes to the conclusion that consensual sadomasochism is legal in Germany as long as any injury is not excessive. In his opinion, Masochists cannot be sued at all.
ADDENDUM: Janet Hardy founds the Greenery Press in San Franciso, California. In over the next 20 years, Greeney press will publish hundreds of kiny non-fiction books including SM 101 by Jay Wiseman and The Ethical Slut by Dossie Easton and Janet Hardy.
CITE: From "Get to Know Us" section of Greenery's Website (now defunct.)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1991 The first American Leatherman contest names Jose Alberto Ucles as the titleholder.
ADDENDUM: Dressing For Pleasure, at Meadowland Hilton in East Rutherford, NJ, 300 rooms, social and educational event.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
ADDENDUM: Gil Kesler inagurates the GMSMA's school for Novice Tops.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1991, Feb. The Leather Journal holds its first Pantheon of Leather awards ceremony in Los Angeles. Bill Costomiris and Susie Shepherd are named Man and Woman of the Year. Lee Willis of the Studworks is named Business Person of the year and Tarheel Leather Club is Club of the Year. New awards this year include: Forbearer - Tom of Finland; Not for profit Organization - The Robert Maplethorpe Foundation; Reader's Choice - Susie Shepard; Publisher's Award - Bob Craig. Regional: Race Bannon, Bill Costomiris, Jaye Evans, & George Nelson.
1991, March Kay Hallanger of Bloomington, IN, is named the 5th International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1991, Mar. 8 GMSMA celebrates its 10th Anniversary with a reception, conference, banquet, and show. The printed program is rich in historical information including a prototype of this timeline compiled by Gil Kessler and Thor Stockman.
1991, May D. Cannon of Palm Springs CA is named the 13th International Mr. Leather at the Vic Theatre in Chicago.
1991, May
ADDENDUM: Founding of Bound by Desire, a Leather patch club for women in Austin, Texas.

SOURCE: Bound by Desire club secretary

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1991, Summer Luke Owen's Master & Slave contest in Los Angeles is won by Race Bannon & Mike Pierce.
1991, Summer The German SM-activist group "AG SM & Oeffentlichkeit" is formed as part of the Suendikat Hamburg. Its aim is to improve the contact of sadomasochists with the general public and spread information among the German SM-subculture.
1991, June 20
ADDENDUM: As noted by -Raid- in his History of Kink on FetLife: The initialism BDSM is first recorded in a Usenet post from 1991.

The Oxford English Dictionary Online (draft ed.) indicates that the term BDSM first appeared in Usenet in a post to the alt.sex.bondage newsgroup with the subject line "Quarterhorse says."

The post reads in part:

For what it's worth, I have been married a LONG time; SO doesn't like BDSM; knows I like it, knows what I do (generally); is not wildly happy that I like to play these scenes once in a while, but puts up with it as long as it is kept ex-home. Opinion is that both lying to SO about what you do and/or telling SO that what they do is ``sick, dirty'' or whatever--are both much more destructive to a relationship than almost anything else could be. I don't like Opera; don't go. SO don't like BDSM; she don't go. Works for us.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 26, 2023.
1991, July 7 Philip Rubin is named the first International Mr. Deaf Leather at the contest in Dallas.
1991, Sept. 6-12 Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 20 in Douglas MI. Tony DeBlase receives the Caligula Award and John Robbins the J Paul Eaton award. This year Inferno is expanded to six days, divided into A and B sessions.
1991, Sept.20 - 21 Woody Bebout of St. Louis is named the 12th Mr. Drummer at the contest in San Francisco. Kevin Stedman of Orlando FL becomes the third Drummerboy of the year.
1991, Sept. 24 Dom "Etienne" Orejudos dies of AIDS related causes in Boulder, Colorado.
1991, Oct. Leatherfolk, a collection of essays on gay and lesbian SM, edited by Mark Thompson is published.
ADDENDUM: Leatherfolk -- Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice by Mark Thompson (editor.) Boston: Alyson Books, 1991
1991, Oct. 11 At the opening ceremonies of Living in Leather, a Canadian version of the Leather Pride flag is presented. It ads to the basic design of the flag a row of red maple leaves running horizontally through the white stripe. To the best of my knowledge the design has never been used again.
1991, Oct. 11-13 Laura GoodwinNLA's Living in Leather VI conference is held in Chicago. Perry Watkins delivers the keynote address and Steve Maidhof and Jan Lyon are presented with Lifetime Achievement Awards. Bill Miranda Saltzman and Laura Goodwin are named Mr. and Ms. NLA at the contest.
1991, Nov. 7 Tom of Finland dies of emphysema in Helsinki at the age of 71.
Photograph of the Finnish artist Touko Laaksonen (1920–1991) alias Tom of Finland.
IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons
1991, Nov. 11 Steve Maidhof, founding daddy of the National Leather Association and creator of the Living in Leather conferences, dies in San Francisco.
Time Event
1992 Formation of Cable Car Chapter of Knights of Malta, SF; Defenders LLC/Washington; Long Island Ravens MC; and URSAMEN New Preston, CT.
1992 The German SM-group Sadomasochistische Interessengemeinschaft e.V. is formed in Berlin.
1992 The AG SM & Oeffentlichkeit becomes an independent group
1992 Cover "Sir! More Sir!" featuring a drawing by ":the Hun" of a naked muscular man blindfolded and in chains Publication of
  • Tales of the Dark Lord by John Preston
  • Zur Sozialgeschichte des Sadomasochismus by German Peter Bahnen in which he explains his theory on the processes that enabled the formation of sadomasochistic subcultures at this time in history.
  • Dream Master and other SM Stories by Larry Townsend
  • One for the Master, Two for the Fool by Larry Townsend
  • The Switch and other Stories by Torsten Barring
  • The Encyclopedia of Unusual Sex Practices by Brenda Love
  • Learning the Ropes, A Basic Guide to Safe and Fun S/M Lovemaking by Race Bannon
  • Sir! More Sir!, The Joy of S&M by Master Jackson
  • SM 101, A Realistic Introduction by Jay Wiseman
  • Making History, The Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Equal Rights 1945 - 1990 by Eric Marcus
  • The Homoerotic Photograph, Male Images from Durieu/Delacroix to Mapplethorpe, by Allen Ellenzweig
  • Body Play magazine, first issue, edited and published by Fakir Musifar
1992 Canada lifts its ban on allowing lesbians and gays to serve in the military.
1992 Jose Alberto Ucles is named to continue for another year as American Leatherman.
1992 Bob Donaldson is named the second International Mr. Deaf Leather at the contest in Baltimore, MD.
ADDENDUM: Éric Rochat produces and directs a television series based on the Story of O for audiences in Brazil.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 21, 2023.
1992, Jan. The German SM-group Main Pain is formed in Frankfurt am Main.
1992, Feb. Pat CalifiaAt The Leather Journal's Pantheon of Leather awards ceremony in Los Angeles Jim Richards and Pat Califia are named man and woman of the year. Other recipients are: Business Person - R.J. Chaffin; Business - Mr. S Leather; Club - Chicago Hellfire Club; Not for profit Organization - National Leather Association; Reader's Choice - Clive Platman & Ruth Marks; Forbearer - Gayle Rubin; Lifetime Achievement - Tom of Finland; Publishers - Chuck Renslow; International - George Whiting; Regionals: Southeast - M. P. Breslin; South Central - Philip Rubin; Rocky Mountain - Dino Rosie; West Coast - John Siracusa; Midwestern - Thom Dombowski; Eastern - Peri Jude Radecic.
1992, Feb. Luke Owens coupled his contest to the Pantheon of Leather weekend and renamed it the International Master & Slave Contest. Winners this year were K.T. Chase and Susie Shepard.
1992, after February
ADDENDUM: Bound by Desire in Austin holds its first Hunt.

SOURCE: An email from Bound by Desire club secretary (12/17/2022)
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1992, Mar. Blair of San Francisco is named the 6th International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1992, Mar. The German heterosexual SM-group SMart Rhein-Ruhr is founded in Essen. By 1997, it will have 100 members and regional groups in seven cities.
1992, March 30 Debra Chasnoff wins an Academy Award for the documentary film Deadly Deception.
1992, Spring The German SM-group Lustvolles Leiden is formed in Muenster.
1992, April The first regular Munch takes place at "Kirk's" in Palo Alto, CA after STella posts the date on the Internet newsgroup alt.sex.bondage. Sporadic Munches had taken place before then.
1992, May The German heterosexual SM-group SMart Bremen-Oldenburg is founded in Bremen and Oldenburg.
1992, May 12 Athletic Model GuildDeath of Bob Mizer, age 70, who from 1945 to 1990 was The Athletic Model Guild and from 1951 to 1990, held total control over it's publication Physique Pictorial. He created a 45 year celebration of the male body beautiful, and along the way invented gay wrestling, and discovered many prominent artists, including Tom of Finland.
1992 May 17 Shan CarrClubs across the continent host screening parties for the comedy video Out For Laughs a collaboration of many gay and lesbian talents spearheaded by stand up comic, and International Ms. Leather 1988, Shan Carr.
1992, May 19 Desmodus Inc., including Drummer, Mach, Tough Customers, DungeonMaster, The Sandmutopia Guardian, and The Sandmutopia Supply Company, is sold to a Dutch corporation headed by Martjin Bakker, who is also the owner of RoB Amsterdam stores and galleries. Tony DeBlase becomes Editor Emeritis.
1992, May 23 The first meeting of the Board of Directors of the Leather Archives and Museum is held during the IML weekend in Chicago. LA&M is officially founded.
1992, May 24 Lenny Broberg of San Francisco becomes the 14th International Mr. Leather at the contest at the Aragon Ballroom in Chicago.
1992 May 17 Clubs across the continent host screening parties for the comedy video Out For Laughs a collaboration of many gay and lesbian talents spearheaded by stand up comic, and International Ms. Leather 1988, Shan Carr.
1992, Sept. 6 Death, in San Francisco, of International Mr. Leather 1983, Colt Thomas. (born: May 22, 1959)
1992, Sept. 9 - 13 Chicago Hellfire Club holds Inferno 21 in Douglas MI. Robert Guenther receives the Caligula Award and Ty Clements the J. Paul Eaton award.
1992, Sept. 19 Emerson Briney of Omaha, is named the 13th Mr. Drummer. John Hare of Los Angeles is named Drummerboy of the year at the contest in San Francisco.
1992, Oct. 9 NLA organizes demonstrations at the British Consulate in Chicago protesting treatment of the Operation Spanner defendants.
1992, Oct. 9-11 NLA's Living in Leather VII conference is held in Chicago. Pat Bond, a founder of Eulenspiegel in New York City, gives the keynote address and also receives the Lifetime Achievement award. Andy Anderson and K. T. Chase are selected as Mr. and Ms. NLA.
1992, Nov. Australia ends its ban on gays and lesbians serving in the military.
1992, Nov. Publication of the first issue of Checkmate, by T. A. Feldwebel, former editor of DungeonMaster, as an alternative to that title.
1992, Nov. 8 National Endowments for the ArtsRepresentatives from the leather/SM communities meet with representatives of the National Endowment of the Arts to discuss attacks on freedom of expression. The meetings are organized by Peri Jude Radecic of NGLTF.
1992, Nov. 9 The German Sadomasochist Wolfgang Boghardt holds public information courses on SM at Volkschochschulen (adult education centers) in Duisburg and Muelheim an der Ruhr. Media attention will force him to stop the popular courses.
Time Event
1993 Formation of Icon Detroit; Long Island Ravens; Journeyman of Syracuse; South Texas Leather Men, Corpus Christi; Suncoast LLC, St. Petersburg FL; Tartarus, St. Louis; and Trident International Windy City, Chicago. Cycle MC and Wheels MC merge in NYC.
1993 "The Magazine of a Sadomasochistic Club: The Tie that Binds" by Rick Houlberg is published in the Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 21 (1/2). This is the first know content analysis of such a publication.
1993 Publication of
  • On the Safe Edge, A Manual for SM Play by Trevor Jacques with Dr. Dale, Michael Hamilton, & Sniffer
  • Different Loving - The World of Sexual Dominance and Submission by Gloria Brame et al.
  • SM: Sensuous Magic, A Guide for Adventurous Couples by Pat Califia
  • The Arena by John Preston
  • My Life as a Pornographer, & other indecent acts by John Preston
  • Exposed, Big Shots, and Beast of Burden, three collections of short stories by Aaron Travis
  • Lewd Conduct a collection of short stories by John W. Rowberry
  • Peter Thornwell by Torsten Barring
  • Ties That Bind by Guy Baldwin, a compilation of his columns from Drummer and other publications
  • The Leather Contest Guide by Guy Baldwin
  • Bob Flanagan: Supermasochist published by REsearch as Vol. 1 in the People Series
  • Ain't Nobody's Business If You Do, The Absurdity of Consensual Crimes in a Free Society by Peter McWilliams
  • Le Phallus, Sacred Symbol of Male Creative Power by Alain Danilou in French. English edition 1995
1993 Mark Thompson's Leatherfolk is published in German as Lederlust -- Der SM-Kult.
1993 Los Angeles Police raid the San Diego home of Lee Baldwin, who produced, directed, and starred in his own line of gay SM videos. Police confiscate Ass Play, a video that includes several fisting scenes, and several others. Baldwin is convicted and sentenced to 547 hours of community service and fined $3000.
1993 Sports Illustrated rejects an Adidas advertisement because it featured a Canadian soccer team wearing nothing but their athletic shoes, despite the fact that thanks to artfully arranged hands, heads and soccer balls, not one team member showed more flesh than the average female model does in SI's notorious annual swimsuit issue.
The offending ad
1993 Jeff Chiofolo is named American Leatherman.
1993 Chris Muller is named International Mr. Deaf leather.
1993 John Ferrari is named Mr. Vulcan Rubber.
1993, Feb. 14 The Lesbian Avengers erect a paper-mache sculpture of Alice B. Toklas beside the statue of Gertrude Stein in Bryant Park in New York City.
1993, Mar. 5 Tam von Hohenzohllern & Kit Terkel are selected as second International Master & Slave at contest in Orlando.
1993, Mar. 6 Woody BeboutThe Leather Journal's Pantheon of Leather awards ceremony is held in Orlando. Woody Bebout and Kay Hallanger were named Man and Woman of the Year. Other awards are: Business person - Kevin Drewery; Business - The Hun/Bill Schmeling; Club - Outer Limits; Not for Profit Organization - AIDS Emergency Fund of San Francisco; Forbearer -Dom Orejudos; Lifetime Achievement - Chuck Renslow; Publisher's - Wane Griffith; Reader's Choice - Joseph Bean & Woody Bebout (tie) & Kay Hallanger; International - Andy Anderson; Regionals: Southeast - Janet Blevens; South Central - Chuck Higgins; Rocky Mountain - Pat Sanchez; West Coast - Race Bannon; Midwestern - Bryan Smith; Eastern -Barry Douglas; Canadian - Bill Houghton.
1993, Mar. Amy Marie Meek of Omaha becomes the 7th International Ms. Leather at the contest in San Francisco.
1993, Apr. 24 The second "SM Leather Conference" is held in Washington DC during the "March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Rights."
1993, Apr. 24 Jad Keres and other members of the American lesbian SM-group Female Trouble Philadelphia launch a study on violence against lesbian sadomasochists at the "SM Leather Conference" during the "March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Rights."
1993, May The German SM-group SMAGK is formed in Karslruhe. By 1995 it will have about 15 members.
1993, May National Leather Association opens international office in San Francisco and hires first paid staff member.
1993, May 28 Leather Archives and Museum opens its first display of collected materials during the International Mr. Leather weekend in Chicago.
1993, May 28 Publication of the first edition of this Leather History TimeLine edited by Anthony F. DeBlase.
1993, May 29 Leather Archives and Museum holds it's first membership meeting in Chicago during IML.
1993, May 30 Henri Ten Have from the Netherlands is selected as the 15th International Mr. Leather at the Arogon Ballroom in Chicago.
1993, May 30 David Morgan is selected as the first International Boot Black during the IML contest in Chicago.
1993, June 23 Bobbit Lorena Bobbitt, for whatever reason, used a kitchen knife to slice off her sleeping husband's penis, which she tossed into a grassy field. It was recovered and, through the miracles of modern surgery, reattached. In their separate trials both John and Lorena Bobbitt were acquitted.
1993, Aug. The German AG SM & Oeffentlichkeit publishes the first edition of the SM Adressbuch, a yearly collection of mostly heterosexual SM-resources and addresses. More than 3,500 copies will have been sold by August 1995.
1993, Aug. 12 Trident International Windy City founded by John Schultz, Rob Ridinger and Ed Luisi.
1993, Sept. 8-13 Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 22 in Douglas MI. David Clare and Stephen Shorle jointly receive the Caligula award and Anthony Kohut the J. Paul Eaton award.
1993, Sept. 9 Cornelius Pass Roadhouse The first leather/sm/fetish munch in Oregon is held at the Cornelius Pass Roadhouse in Hillsboro. 19 people attend including Patti Beadles who, as Kris Asber, had posted the invitation for the munch to alt.sex.bondage. Within the next two days she had founded the pdx.abs mailing list and shortly thereafter the group started having munches on a weekly basis at the Blue Moon saloon in Portland. As of this printing they still do.
1993, Sept. 25 Graylin Thornton of Sacramento is selected as the 14th Mr. Drummer, during the Leather Pride Week contest in San Francisco. Spot Gilea, also from Northern California, was named Drummerboy of the Year.
1993, Oct. 8-10 NLA's Living In Leather VIII conference was held in Houston. Peri Jude Radecic keynote speaker. Lifetime Achievement Awards to Fakir Musafar and Dorothy Hajdys. Mark Frasier & Artemis Silver Owl both from Dallas, are named Mr. & Ms NLA.
1993, Nov. The German sociologist Thomas A. Wetzstein publishes the results of a study on the German SM-subculture in Sadomasochismus - Szenen und Rituale. The findings support the concepts of Spengler and Weinbert. About 38% of the respondents are women. The results are not published in English and receive no notice outside of Germany.
1993, Dec. 31 Death of Samuel Moris Steward, 82. Instructor in SM to Chuck Renslow, Alfred Kinsey, and many more; recognized writer under his own name, and as Phil Andros. recognized artist under his own name, and as Phil Sparrow, tattoo artist.
ADDENDUM: Samuel M. Steward recounts an encounter with Steve Masters for the benefit of Dr. Kinsey in "Dr Kinsey Takes a Peek at S/M: A Reminiscence" in Leatherfolk -- Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice by Mark Thompson (editor.) Boston: Alyson Books, 1991.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
Time Event
1994 Mates Clubs formed: Bears LA (Los Angeles), Bears of San Francisco, Bears SD (San Diego), Vancouver [BC] branch of Betty Page Social Club, Black Eagle Leather Klub (Los Angeles), Black Jack Bears (Las Vegas), Boston Rubber Club, Brothers in Leather, Chemnitzer Eagle (Germany), Club Les Cuirasses de Quebec (Quebec City), Defenders LLC/San Francisco, Delta International, Enforcers RI (Providence), Empowerment through Sensual Conduct and Attitudes Power Exchange (Escape, Las Vegas), FIST (Houston), Females Investigating Sexual Terrain (FIST, Baltimore) 4-L Club (SF), Houston Area Bears, Inter-Bike (Copenhagen), Leather Club Thuringen (Germany), Leather Scribes, Mates Provincetown, Mecs en Caoutchiuc (Dammarie Les Lys, FR), Rogues MC (Roanoke, VA), SandMen (San Diego), Silver State Leather Association (Reno), Steel City Centurions (Birmingham AL), Tennessee Leather Tribe, Memphis: Toronto Deaf Leather Association, ), and Trident Knights (Charleston SC).
1994 Mudmen (Houston) changes name to SludgeMaster.
1994 The pansexual German SM-group Offener Gespraechskreis SM is formed in Berlin.
1994 The German SM-group SMile Freiburg is formed in Friburg.
1994 Satyrs MC Satyrs MC, the oldest leather/motorcycle club in the USA (and the world) holds the 33rd and LAST Badger Flats Run.  That is what they said then, in 1998 the Satyrs resume the Badger Flats Run!
1994 First Mr. Bear Ohio, Ms East Coast Leather, Idaho Leather Pride, Mr. New Mexico Leather, Mr. New Mexico Leather Pride, Mr. Oklahoma Drummer, Mr. Philadelphia Deaf Leather, Rocky Mountain Ms Leather, Ms San Diego Leather Woman, and Western Canada Drummer contests.
1994 Brent Lacey (IML 1993 fist runner-up) receives Order of Australia from Queen Elizabeth II for success of the Red Ribbon Project.
1994 Chicks in White Satin, a documentary film by Elaine Holliman about a lesbian wedding ceremony is nominated for an Academy Award.
1994 First issues of serials: Black Leather...In Color, Fetish, In Uniform, Masta Entertainment Complete Video Catalog, and Project X.
1994 Publication of
  • Mapplethorpe, Assault with a Deadly Camera, A Pop Culture Memoir by Jack Fritscher
  • Shaddowman by Torsten Barring
  • The Flesh Fables, a collection of short stories by Aaron Travis
  • The Slave Prince by Vince Gilman
  • A Caning For Sinngapore, by RT/Texas
  • Leathersex: A Guide for the Curious Outsider and the Serious Player by Joseph Bean
  • Leatherwomen II by Laura Antoniou
  • Doing it for Daddy by Pat Califia
  • Public Sex by Pat Califia
  • Beneath the Skins, by Ivo Domingues Jr.
  • Elements of Arousal by Lars Eighner
  • Leathersex by Max Exander (Paul Reed)
  • Sadomasochism by William Thompson
  • Submission Holds by Key Lincoln
  • Hustling: A Gentleman's Guide to the Fine Art of Homosexual Prostitution by John Preston
  • Tales from the Dark Lord II by John Preston
  • The Kiss of the Whip, Explorations in SM by Jim Prezwalski
  • The Master's Manual, A Handbook of Erotic Dominance by Jack Rinella
  • Tom of Finland, His Life and Times by Valentine F. Hooven III
  • Animal Handlers by Jay Shaffer
  • That Day at the Quarry by Tom Shaw
  • Resource Book Three by SM Gays of London
  • Erotica Universalis by Giles Neret
  • Rituals by Kyle Stone
  • The Case of the Severed Head by Larry Townsend
  • Hazing: An Anthology of Hazing Tales by Bob Wingate
1994 Gayle Rubin completes her PhD in Anthropology at the University of Michigan. Her dissertation is The Valley of the Kings: Leathermen in San Francisco, 1960 - 1990.
ADDENDUM: See also Old Guard, New Guard by Gayle Rubin. It is excerpted from a speech given by Gayle Rubin at the graduation ceremony for the Journeyman II Academy on October 4, 1997.
1994 Business openings include: Clone Zone store on Earls Court, across from the Coleherne, London's oldest leather bar; Gays and Lesbians of Brooklyn and Everywhere community center; Mon Cheri's The Chamber, Atlanta, GA; Our House Gallery, Amsterdam; and 7702 SM Club, West Hollywood.
1994 Faultline, formerly Griff's Los Angeles, reopens.
1994 James McGlade buys The Leather Rack (DC) from Richard Cogan.
1994 The New Yorker In an interview published in The New Yorker Dominique Aury admits that she is Pauline Reage, author of The Story of O. She said she wrote the book as a love letter to the man she adored, Jean Paulhan, a prominent French critic, after he said she couldn't write an erotic book.
1994, early The mailbox Slaves and Masters BBS is founded in Hamburg, Germany.
1994 The new Republic of South Africa constitution prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation.
1994 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) is issued with considerably revised definitions of Masochism and Sadism, which in essence say that it they are not illnesses unless you are bothered by your interest in them and they interfere with your normal functioning in other aspects of your life.
SEE ALSO: Some Notes on Psychology, Homosexuality, and Sadomasochism

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1994 Thomas S. Weinberg publishes a summary of two decades of sociological research on sadomasochism, describing it as "erotic, consensual, and recreational."
ADDENDUM: This is mostly likely the study: Thomas S. Weinberg. 1994. “Research in sadomasochism: A review of sociological and social psychological literature,” Annual Review of Sex Research, 5, John Bancroft and Clive M. Davis (Eds.):257-279.

Thomas S. Weinberg contributed additional publications relevant to this timeline. Here's a few from his most current CV.
  • Thomas S. Weinberg. 1995. S & M: Studies in Dominance and Submission, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Also published as BDSM: Estudios sobre la dominacion y la sumision. Barcelona (Spain): Edicions Bellaterra, 2008
  • Thomas Weinberg and G. W. Levi Kamel 1983. S and M: Studies in Sadomasochism, Buffalo, N. Y.: Prometheus Books.
  • Thomas S. Weinberg. 2006. "Sadomasochism and the social sciences: A review of the sociological and social psychological literature." Pp. 17-40 in Peggy J. Kleinplatz and Charles Moser (eds.), Sadomasochism: Powerful Pleasures, West Hazelton (PA): Harrington Park Press. Published simultaneously with the Journal of Homosexuality, 50 (2/3).
  • Thomas S. Weinberg and Martha S. Magill. 1995. “Sadomasochistic themes in mainstream culture.” Pp. 223 – 230 in Thomas S. Weinberg, S & M: Studies in Dominance and Submission, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Tanya Bezreh, Thomas S. Weinberg and Timothy Edgar. 2012. “BDSM disclosure and stigma management: Identifying opportunities for sex education,” American Journal of Sexuality Education. 7 (1):37-61.
  • Thomas S. Weinberg. 1987. “Sadomasochism in the United States: A review of recent sociological literature,” The Journal of Sex Research, 23:50-69.
  • Thomas S. Weinberg and Gerhard Falk. 1980. “The social organization of sadism and masochism,” Deviant Behavior, 1:379-393. Reprinted in Delos Kelly (Ed.) Deviant Behavior (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984. Also reprinted in Clifton D. Bryant (Ed.), Deviant Behavior: Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violations, New York: Hemisphere Publishing Company, 1989.
  • Thomas S. Weinberg. 1978. “Sadism and masochism: Sociological perspectives,” Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (special Crime and Sexuality issue), 6(3): 284-295.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1994 The American psychologist Eugene E. Levitt and colleagues confirm Breslow's finding that nonprostitute female sadomasochists exist.
ADDENDUM: I found the following citation in "Psychological Characteristics of BDSM Practitioners" in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, May 2013:

Moser C, Levitt E. An exploratory-descriptive study of a sadomasochistically orientated sample. In: Weinberg T, ed. S&M: Studies in dominance and submission. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books; 1995:93–112.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1994 The first Spanner/Mart fundraiser, organized by the 15 Association and others, is held in San Francisco to raise money for the Operation Spanner defense fund.
1994 A film version of Ann Rice's novel Exit to Eden is released. It is very SM positive, but critics pan it. It is pretty silly, but so was the novel.
1994 Victor Magide is named American Leatherman and Sarah Humble is named American Leatherwoman.
1994 Jose Granda is named International Mr. Deaf Leather.
1994 Ryan Johnson is named Mr. Vulcan Rubber 1994.
1994 Missouri high school teacher Rodney Wilson organizes teachers and community leaders to educate the public about the history of lesbian, gay and bisexual people. The National Gay and Lesbian History Month each October grows out of this movement.
1994, Jan. The Lure, a leather bar, opens in New York city just around the corner from the former site of the Mineshaft. The consortium of owners are all leathermen. It is instantly successful.
1994, Jan 19 Tennessee Leather Tribe founded in Memphis.
1994, Feb. 4 Sheila Kuehl becomes the first out gay or lesbian elected to the California Assembly.
1994, Feb. 26 For the first time Gay and Lesbian Asian-Pacific organizations are included in the San Francisco Chinese New Year Parade.
1994, March Publication of Doomed Rabbit, Recipes from the Kitchens of Leather Folk and Friends compiled by Aubrey Hart Sparks, and including recipes contributed by leather people from all over North America, and from some non-leather people including Hilly Clinton, is published as a fundraiser in the "Hands off Washington" campaign.
1994, March Female Trouble The American lesbian SM-group Female Trouble in Philadelphia publishes the study "Violence against SM Women within the Lesbian Community" (The "Jad Keres Report"). Based on a 539 questionnaires completed by lesbian sadomasochists, the study documents that 56% of them were subjected to some form of violence from vanilla lesbians because of their SM orientation. This is the only known study on violence against sadomasochits, lesbian or otherwise.
1994, March 5 John Birch and Beau Lee James of Oak Brook IL are selected as the International Master and slave at this year's contest in Houston.
1994, March 6 Brother Help Thyself The Leather Journal's Pantheon of Leather awards ceremony is held in Houston. Joseph Bean and K.T. Chase are named Man and Woman of the Year. Other awards are: Business Person: Scott Rodriguez of the Cuff in Seattle WA; Business: Mr. S Leathers, San Francisco; Club: Centaur MC, Washington DC; Club sponsored event: Living in Leather VIII; Non-Profit Organization: Brother Help Thyself, Washington DC; Forbearer: Dom "Etienne" Orejudos; Lifetime Achievement: Tony DeBlase; Readers Choice: Lenny Broberg and K. T. Chase; Publisher's: Brian Dawson; International: Don Bastian, Calgary; Regionals: West Coast - Guy Baldwin; Rocky Mountain - Joe Potter; South Central - Boots Adams; Midwest - Ed Tobin; Southeast - Jose Alberto Ucles; Eastern - Alan Chiras; Canadian - Trevor Jacques.
1994, March 19 Anne Bergstedt of Seattle WA, is selected as the 8th International Ms Leather at the contest in San Francisco. She later resigns and Cindy Bookout, the first runner up, assumes the title.
1994, March 25-27 Omikron of Indianapolis holds its first major run: Omikron 500 -- Lap 1. The Mr. Indiana Leather Contest was won by Lance Bray of Fort Wane.
1994, March 31 Tom of Finland exhibition opens at the Schwules Museum in Berlin for a three month run. A Catalog of the exhibition is published: Tom of Finland Exhibition 1994-95.
1994, May 27 The second edition of this Leather History Timeline is published.
1994, May 27-30 Leather Archives & Museum exhibits a portion of it's collection in Chicago during International Mr. Leather 1994.
1994, May 29 16th International Mr. Leather Contest. Jeff Tucker of San Jose is selected at the contest at the Congress Theatre in Chicago.
1994, May 29 International Boot Black 1994, William Steele is named during the IML contest in Chicago.
1994, June Gay Games IV Gay Games IV was held in New York during June 1994 to coincide with the Stonewall 25 celebration. Attending Unity '94 were former Olympic competitors, celebrities, politicians, and, in keeping with the continued growth of the Gay Games, nearly 11,000 athletes and about 1,500 cultural participants from 40 countries. Featuring 31 sports, Gay Games IV exceeded the Olympics in numbers of athletic participants.
1994, June Celebration of the 25th Anniversary of the Stonewall Riots held in New York City at the conclusion of Gay Games 1994. Hundreds of thousands of gay men and women fill the city in celebration.
1994, June A consortium of NYC area leather/SM clubs sponsors International SM-Leather-Fetish Celebration. The largest conference of SM/leather/fetish people yet!
1994, June Becoming Visible, an exhibit centering on the Stonewall riots, but extending well into the pre-stonewall era of gay and lesbian history in New York City is featured at the New York Public Library. SUPERB!
1994, June Publication of Long Road to Freedom, The Advocate History of the Gay and Lesbian Movement edited by Mark Thompson.
1994, June Joe Granda wins International Mr. Deaf Leather contest in New York City.
1994, June 11
ADDENDUM: Germany abolishes Paragraph 175.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1994, June 23 The German government television station ARD shows a documentary on the SM group Suendikat Hamburg. Though the end shows a female sadomasochist who plans to get rid of her orientation, the tone of this programs is mostly positive.
1994, July Michael M. Schein is convicted of obscenity for producing and distributing gay male videos, including Give That Man a Hand, depicting urination. He is sentenced to 18 months federal detention.
1994, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 23 in Douglas Michigan. Tony Philbin receives the Caligula award and Ralph Cheesborough the J Paul Eaton award.
1994, Sept. Leather Pride Week in San Francisco. Keith Hunt is named International Mr. Drummer 1994/95, and Mark Colter is named International Drummber Boy.
1994, Sept. The first regular German radio program on sadomasochism by sadomasochists, "Radio Schwazer Adler", is started in Hamburg. It will broadcast over 30 programs by July 1997.
1994, Oct. Living in Leather IX is held in Toronto ON. K. T. Chase becomes new female Co-chair. Lifetime Achievement awards are presented to John Preston and Nan Burrows. Titleholders selected are Mr. NLA Don Bastian of Calgary and Ms NLA Mary Dante of Toronto.
1994, Dec. 10 Bear Dog Hoffman takes over Richard Bulger's ailing Brush Creek Media (Bear and Power Play magazines) and quickly adds Terry LeGrande's Parkwood Publications (International Leatherman, FQ, etc.) Brush Creek soon revives Bunknhouse and Honbres Latinos magazines.
1994 San Francisco Eagle Deaths: historian John F Boswell; Mr. Drummer 1993, Emerson Briney; Mr. Sacramento Leather 1991, Randy Gray; Great Lakes Drummer Boy 1993, David Hawn; International Mr. Leather 1987, Thomas Karasch; author John Preston; The first Mr. Leather New York, Henry Romanowski; Leather Journal columnist Paul "Papa Bear" Shem; San Francisco Eagle manager, Terry Thompson; Mr. Indiana Leather 1992, Ed Tobin; and David Weinbaum of GMSMA.
Time Event
1995 Onyx Clubs formed: Brew City Bears (Milwaukee), Coastal Empire Sentinels (Savannah), The Dedicated and Safe Club (Chicago), Dragon Leather Club (Columbus OH), Firebirds, Milwaukee; Harbor City Bears (Sydney), International Dungeon and Playroom Association, Knight Cruisers (Lexington) Leather Engineers of Omaha, ONYX/Chicago, Pikes Peak Summit Masters (Colorado Springs), Red Earth Bears (Oklahoma City), Seattle Kink Information Network (SKIN), South Sound S&M Leatherfolk (Olympia WA), Sober, Safe, Sane and Consensual Club of Chicago; The SOCIETY Connecticut chapter, South Texas Lather Men (Corpus Christi), The Spanking Club (Los Angeles), Texas Riders MC Corpus Christi Chapter, Trident International Baltimore, Vulcan America Southern California (Los Angeles) West Florida Growlers of Tampa, and Women's Welcoming Committee (Seattle).
1995 Clubs disbanded: Black Angels (Koln), Cascade Bears (Portland, OR), Lost Angels (DC), Ozbears Australia, and Vanguards MC (Philadelphia).
1995, early The German SM-group aktiveS/Muenchen is formed in Munich by a splinter group of freiesMuenchen.
1995 The Polish SM-Society is formed in Nowy Sacz, Poland. This is the first known SM group in that country.
1995 C-Space, an SM instruction forum ceases operations in Seattle.
1995 The David Weinbaum Foundation is founded in New York City. The purpose of the foundation it to make cash grants to organizations to be used for specific projects benefiting the leather/SM/fetish community.
1995 The 15 Association creates a fund, named for deceased member Alexis Sorel, in order to assist brothers in need.
1995 Northwest Bondage Club (Seattle) secures new meeting and play space on Capitol Hill.
1995 First Ms Florida Leather, International Mr. Fantasy, Mr. Leather Europe, and Ms New Mexico Leather contests.
1995 Publication of
  • The Bottoming Book by Dossie Easton and Catherine A. Lizst
  • Safe, Sane, Consensual and Fun by John Warren
  • Screw the Roses, Send me the Thorns by Philip Miller and Molly Devon
  • Thy Rod and Staff by Edward Anthony
  • Writing Below the Belt, Conversations with Erotic Authors by Michael Rowe
  • Looking for Mr. Preston, A Celebration of the Writer's Life Edited by Laura Antoniou
  • The Stonewall Experiment, A Gay Psychohistory by Ian Young
  • The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage, A reader's companion to the writers and their works from antiquity to the present Edited by Claude J. Summers
  • Out of the Past, Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present by Neil Miller
  • Unspeakable, The Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Press in America by Rodger Streitmatter
  • One-Handed Histories, The eroto-politics of gay male video pornography by John R. Burger
  • The Hero, Manhood and Power by John Lash
  • Studies in Dominance and Submission by Thomas A. Weinberg, A second, revised, edition
  • By Her Subdued Edited by Laura Antoniou
1995 Richard Kasak Books publishes a new edition of William Carney's novel The Real Thing, originally published by Putnam's in 1968 and long out of print.

Review by Samuel R. Delany:

This brief, elegant psychological novel is what might be imagined if Andre Gide and Marguerite Yourcenar had decided to collaborate on the ultimate S/M double-whammy. From a cool, cool beginning it rises to a truly astonishing pitch of excitement. By the end it's equally astonishing how much we know about these people, considering how artfully little we've been told.

The Real Thing

ADDENDUM: The debut Run of Delta Brotherhood International, a splinter organization branching of from Hellfire Club of Chicago.

contrib. Chris M. 1995.
ADDENDUM: Greenery Press merges with Jay Wiseman Books under the Greenery name. Hardy runs the company, while Wiseman serves on the Press's board of directors.

CITE: From "Get to Know Us" section of Greenery's Website (now defunct.)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1995 Greg Lowe is named American Leatherman, Mon Cherie is named American Leatherwoman, and Kevin McGraw is named American Leatherboy.
1995 Jack Stice and tom Stice are named International Master and Slave.
1995, Jan. Publication of The Politics of Pain: Torturers and Their Masters edited by Ronald D. Crelinsten and Alex P. Schmid.
1995, March 1 Firebirds founded in Milwaukee
1995, March 8 Hungary legalizes common law same sex marriage.
1995, March 25 The State of Mississippi ratifies the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, making slavery illegal in the state.
CORRECTION: According to CBS News:

The amendment was ratified after three-fourths of the states backed it in December 1865. Four remaining states all eventually ratified the amendment -- except for Mississippi. Mississippi voted to ratify the amendment in 1995 but failed to make it official by notifying the U.S. Archivist.


On Jan. 30, [2013], [Mississippi Secretary of State Delbert] Hosemann sent the Office of the Federal Register a copy of the 1995 resolution, and on Feb. 7, the Federal Register made the ratification official.

ADDENDUM: Section 1 of the 13th Ammendment to the Constitution of the United States states:

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1995, May The Leather Archives and Museum mounts it's third exhibition during International Mr. Leather weekend.
1995, May International Mr Leather contest at the Congress Theatre in Chicago is won by Larry Everett, Mr. Oklahoma Leather.
1995, May Tim Cousins wins International Bootblack 1995 during IML contest in Chicago.
1995, May 26 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled it is illegal to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation.
1995, June 1 Effective date of NLA: San Diego's decision to withdraw from affiliation with NLA: I. and rename itself Club X.
1995, June Mexico's first March for Human Rights of Lesbians and Gays is held in Tijuana.
1995, June 6 Craig Byrnes introduces his design for the "International Bear Brotherhood Flag." A design based on the Leather Pride flag, with seven fur-colored stripes and a paw-print in the upper left, is accepted.

Bear Brotherhood flag.svg
By Fibonacci. - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0
DESCRIPTION: Field of seven equally sized horizontal stripes: dark brown, orange/rust, golden yellow, tan, white, gray, and black; with a bear paw print in the canton.
IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1995, Mid The German SM group SMarti.e.s. is formed in Hamburg.
1995, July 6 David Cowan of Indianapolis is selected as the fifth International Mr. Deaf Leather at the contest in Montreal.
1995, July 20-23 pat baille wins International MS. Leather in Chicago.
1995, July 30 The 15 Association, The Outcasts and the Society of Janus join forces to host SpannerMart 2 in San Francisco, raising $7,248 for the Spanner Defense Fund.
1995, July 31 Iran's parliament votes to ban the sale of seedless watermelons because "the unnatural melons spread corruption, robbing the youths of moral values, promoting Homosexuality and asexuality"!
1995, Aug. The Orange County Leather Assembly hosts its second annual "Meet a Master" weekend, this year featuring Tony DeBlase.
1995, Aug, 18-20 Fantasy 1995 changes format and includes the first ever International Mr. Fantasy contest, won by J. D. Buchart.
1995, Sept. 1 - 5 Delta International hosts it's first SM run in Pennsylvania. The core membership of the group is from Chicago Hellfire Club, and the Delta run is very similar to Inferno, but in an incredibly better venue!
1995, Sept. 7 - 13 Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 24 in Douglas Michigan. Michael Horowitz receives the Caligula Award and Race Bannon the J Paul Eaton award.
1995, Sept. 23 At the Mr. Drummer contest in San Francisco, David WW Walker is named International Mr. Drummer. and Pup is named International Drummer Boy.
1995, Oct. 6-8 NLA holds its tenth Living in Leather Conference in Portland OR. Mark Frasier becomes male co-chair. Tony DeBlase and Woody Bebout are Keynote speakers. Viola Johnson and Larry Townsend receive the Lifetime Achievement awards. Mr. and Ms NLA are David Hoffenbacker and Stacey.
1995, Nov The Leather Archives and Museum moves to a storefront at 5007 N Clark St. and opens its first permanent exhibition gallery. The first show highlights items from the collection and features the original artwork of Dom Orejudos. The collection is made available to researchers.
1995, Nov. The Spanking Club of Los Angeles is founded by Glenn Walker and five other men.
1995, Nov. 5 Motorsport Club Amsterdam Motor Sportclub Amsterdam and the European Council of Motorcycle Clubs sponsored the 1996 Mr. Europe Leather and Mr. Europe Drummer contests. Antonio Sanchez of Madrid Spain won both titles and will represent Europe in both IML and the Mr. Drummer finals in 1996.
1995, Nov. 15 Beyond the Edge Cafe, operated by Alena Gabosch and Denise Pedro, opens in Seattle. It quickly becomes the meeting place for men and women into the leather/sm/fetish scene. Many special interest and social groups use it as a meeting space and it is the site of many scene related art shows and performances. Closes, Jan. 1999.
1995 TLC, A year with a leather club is released. This documentary video made by Randy Riddle covers a year of activities by the members of the Tarheel Leather Club.
1995 Dungeon Master Desmodus Inc. stops publishing DungeonMaster and The Sandmutopia Guardian. Harold Cox and Bob Reite, the owners of Checkmate purchase DungeonMaster and incorporate it into their publication. Mitch Kessler and Gerrie Blum, a couple from New York who have been involved in many aspects of the SM community for many years, purchase The Sandmutopia Guardian and resume publication of that title.
1995 Mistress Lainey arranges the first of the “Crypt Parties” on 1995. Three years of the best Parties Thrown in the late 90’s. Frazier Botsford, Lainey’s landlord, starts attending as a volunteer.
1995, Dec. 31 A New Years Eve SM Play Party is the first of many play parties in the lower level of the Beyond the Edge Cafe in Seattle.
Time Event
1996 Formation of Men of Rubber, Chicago; and Wisconsin Leathermen, Milwaukee.
1996 The National Leather Association of Canada (Vancouver), after years of no contact with any other part of NLA, changes its name to VantaSM.
1996 South Africa adopts a new constitution which bans discrimination based on sexual orientation, the first instance of such laws being incorporated into a constitution.
1996 The German activist Matthias Grimme publishes the SM-Handbuch. This is the first SM safety book written in German.
1996 Books published in English
  • Leathersex Q & A by Joseph Bean
  • The Second Coming - A Leatherdyke Reader, edited by Pat Califia and Robin Sweeney
  • My Private Life - Real Experiences of a Dominant Woman by Mistress Nan
  • Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex, and the Fight for Women's Rights, by Nadine Strossen
  • Ritual Sex, by Tristan Taormino and David Aaron Clark
  • The Gay Almanac, compiled by the National Museum and Archive of Lesbian and Gay History
  • Who's A Pretty Boy Then?, One Hundred and Fifty Years of Gay Life in Pictures by James Gardiner
  • The Only Reason I Mention This, A Collection of the Best of The Wearin' O' The Hides Columns by Daddy Bob
  • Hard to Imagine, Gay Male Eroticism In Photography and Film From Their Beginnings to Stonewall by Thomas Waugh
  • Valentine's Shanghaied by Valentine Hooven
1996 Daniel Sonnenfeld is named International Mr. Deaf Leather and Cool Cat is named the first International Ms Deaf Leather.
1996 Morgana and michael, from Denver, are named International Master and slave 1996.
1996 Kevin Watson selected as International Mr. Fantasy 1996.
1996 The James C. Hormel Gay and Lesbian Center in the San Francisco public library opens as the first separate lesbian and gay collection in a US public library.
ADDENDUM: Delta 1996. Jack McGeorge, Frazier Botsford, Sir Ken, and Chris M, attend. A written account is published in the Dec, 1996 Petal and Thorn.

contrib. Chris M. 1996.
1996, Jan. Astride Indricane and Birgita Bohvinger, a lesbian couple, are legally united under new laws allowing same sex marriages in Latvia.
1996, Jan. Performance Artist Bob "Supermasochist" Flanagan dies at age 42 of cystic fibrosis.
"Why?" by Bob Flanagan from Sick: The Life and Death of Bob Flanagan, Supermasochist (1997) Dir. Kirby Dick

SEE ALSO: Dawn Reynolds, "Disability and BDSM: Bob Flanagan and the case for sexual rights," in Sexuality Research & Social Policy volume 4, Article number: 40 (2007)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1996, Jan. Lovett New York's White Columns mounted a show of bright color photographs of duo John Lovett and Alessandro Codagnone with their in-laws: Lovett's parents are all about American suburbia, Codagnone's live in a respectable home outside Milan, Italy. The parents smile, the boys are smiling too -- and draped in leather and bondage gear. "We're a couple, just as they're a couple, and yet who is normal or abnormal?" says Codagonone.
1996, Feb. The Salt Lake City school board votes to ban all nonacademic clubs in order to quash the student's Gay-Straight Alliance.
1996, Feb Beasts & Beauties, The Erotic art of Olaf is published
1996, Feb. 10 The Leather Journal holds it's first Mr. and Ms Olympus Leather during the Pantheon Of Leather weekend. Ron Hendon and Daddy Flo are named to the titles.
1996, February 6
ADDENDUM: Playhouse Studios – A combination Dungeon Playspace and Art Gallery opens in Baltimore MD, February 6, 1996. Playhouse will hold exhibitions of works by Barbara Nitke, Chris M, MArk Chester, Vendela Zane and Justice of Baltimore.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1996, Feb. 11 Pantheon of Leather IV is held in New Orleans. Woody Bebout and Sarah Humble are Man and Woman of the year. Cindy Bookout and Frank Nowicki receive the Reader's Choice awards. Lifetime Achievement to Don Thompson. Forbearer to Judy Tallwing-McCarthy, Publisher's award to Walter Klinger and Gerald LeGault, Club of the Year to The 15 Association; Club Event of the Year - 25th Anniversary /ECMC Weekend, Motor Sport Amsterdam, NonProfit Organization of the year Countdown on Spanner National Effort, Business of the Year to Gauntlet, Inc., Business person of the year to Jim McGlade and Chuck Renslow, International to Dom Bastian and Mary Dante; Regional awards are: Southeast: Bill Costomiris and Jack Stice, South Central: Dean Walradt, Rocky Mountain: Greg Lowe, West Coast: Jeff Henness, Midwest: Jan Hall, Canadian: Paris Elizabeth Sea. Local Community Service to Aubrey Hart Sparks.
1996, April Companions on a Journy hold the first gay conference in Sri Lanka.
1996, May The Alternate Sources Guide by Trevor Jacques is published.
1996, May 8 Death of Alan Oversby, a.k.a. Mr. Sebastian, Britain's master piercer.
1996, May 9 The Canadian House of Commons passes landmark legislation banning discrimination against homosexuals.
1996, May 9 The US Postal Service announced that it operated a mail order pornography company for nearly two years as part of an undercover investigation aimed at people who purchased illicit materials depicting children in sex acts.
1996, May 24 Denmark provides protection from employment discrimination for lesbians, gay men and bisexuals.
1996, May 24-27 International Mr. Leather weekend in Chicago. The Contest at the Congress Theatre is won by Joe Gallagher of New York City
1996, May 26 Todd Nelson is named International Boot Black at the IML contest in Chicago.
1996, June - Aug. The Fleet is In New York's Whitney Museum of American Art features a show including three of Pal Cadmus' most controversial (at least in the 1930's when they were painted) works: "The Fleet's In!", "Sailors and Floosies", and "Shore Leave", all of which feature ripe male sailor bodies interacting with prostitutes, and each other.
1996, June 4 Iceland becomes the fourth country to create a domestic partnership registry for same sex couples. Denmark was first in 1989, followed by Norway and Sweden.
1996, June 22 Beyond the Edge Cafe in Seattle hosts the first in it's series of Fetish Nights.
1996, July SMart Bremen-Oldenburg becomes the second German SM group to be awarded the legal status as an eingetragener Verein (e.V.).
1996, July At the Republican National Convention there are four openly lesbian, gay or bisexual delegates. Later, at the Democratic convention there are 142.
1996, Aug. Kolbe Republican Congressman Jim Kolbe (of Arizona) is forced out of the closet after he votes to allow states to ban same sex marriage. He won re-election that year. In 2000, he became the first openly gay person to address the Republican National Convention, although his speech did not address gay rights. He has been lukewarm in his support of same-sex marriage, voted in support of the Defense of Marriage Act, and strongly supports the availability of universal civil unions. Kolbe supports abortion rights and is a strong proponent of guest worker programs for immigrants. All of these stances have caused some resentment in the Republican Party. Kolbe was challenged by conservative Randy Graf in the 2004 primary and won renomination.
1996, Sept 6 Karl Watkins is found dead in his cell after being convicted of gross indecency at Wolverhampton Crown Court (England) His crime? Outraging public decency by trying to make love to pavements and, in one case, an underpass. Despite psychiatric help he hadn't been able to shake off his strange fixation.
1996, Sept. Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 25 in Douglas Michigan. Peter Fiske receives the Caligula award and Jon Baumgartner the J. Paul Eaton award.
1996, Sept. San Francisco Leather Pride Week.
1996, Sept International Mr. Drummer Contest is won by Kyle Brandon, Mike DeNisco is named International Drummer Boy.
1996, September 21
ADDENDUM: US President Bill Clinton signs The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), the federal law passed by the 104th United States Congress that banned federal recognition of same-sex marriage by limiting the definition of marriage to the union of one man and one woman, and allowed states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages granted in other states.

The DOMA somehow sought to protect marriage by denying it to homosexual couples. Apparently there is a finite number of marriages available.

Or perhaps the concerns was the marriages of gay couples would somehow tarnish or invalidate the marriages of heterosexual couples.

Or maybe the fear was that heterosexual couples would stop getting married because they didn't want their friends to think they were gay.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1996, Oct. Jean Beland and Joey Zocher, two lesbians, are elected Homecoming King and Queen by the student body at University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
1996, Oct. 3-6 Living In Leather XI is held in Portland OR. Jan Hall becomes female co-chair. Lifetime Achievement Awards are presented to Bob Flanagan and Sheree Rose, and to Jo Arnone. The International Mr. and Ms NLA titles are terminated, though Stacey is designated to continue as an Ambassador of NLA until further notice.
1996, Oct. 10 The Austrian SM-group Eat Me, Beat Me, is founded in Vienna based on the model of American Munches.
1996, Oct. 18 - 20 Leather University's Dungeon 101, held in Ft. Lauderdale FL, brings two days of SM instruction by a naturally recruited faculty. Small class sizes allow hands-on laboratory participation. And nightly homework assignments are given.
1996, Nov. The German lesbian SM group SMacht! -- "Autonomes Netzwerk lesbischer und bisexueller Frauen" is founded. This is the first known lesbian SM group in Germany.
1996, Nov. Matthew Bourne's new production of Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake opens in London. Rewritten to feature an all male cast of swans and a prince who falls in love with the Swan King, who is dressed in black leather, the production is a hit in London and later in Los Angeles. It opens on Broadway in Nov. 1998.
1996, Nov. Euro Bear magazine is launched in Cologne, Germany
1996, Nov. 12 Barry Douglas Death in New York City of leather community activist Barry Douglas. He served four years as Chairman of GMSMA, was on the steering committee for the 1987 March on Washington, co chaired the National Leather Conference held at that event, Served on the executive committee for the 1993 March On Washington and on the board of the International Stonewall 25 commemoration in 1994. In 1988 he was the first person to be honored as "Man of the Year" by The Leather Journal. (born 1949)
1996, Nov. 18 Death of Phillip Miller, coauthor with Molly Devon of Screw the Roses, Send Me the Thorns.
1996, Dec. 14 Marriage in Portland, OR of Sharon Contreas and Lori Michelle Buckwalter. Buckwalter, still legally a male at the time of the ceremony, is in the last stages of gender change, which will be completed shortly after the ceremony. Then two legally recognized women will be partners in a legally recognized marriage.
1996, Dec. 16 Mach #34 is published by Brush Creek Media. The magazine originated as "Drummer's Big Brother" at Alternate Publications, becomes International Leatherman's adopted brother after Desmodus Inc. sells the title to the Bear family of magazines.
Time Event
1997 July 18 - 20 Genelle Moore of Lincoln NB is named International Ms. Leather. Her late brother Ron Moore was International Mr. Leather in 1984.
1997 Paul Thomas Anderson's movie Boogie Nights is released to critical acclaim. The story line is set in the porno movie industry in Southern California in the 1970's and '80's.
1997 Waitress in black A theme restaurant, La Nouvelle Justine, opens in Manhattan. The theme is SM, Along with the French cuisine, the staff of Top identified waitpersons and bottom identified supporting staff, both male and female, appropriately attired in leather and paraphanalia, will provide spankings, boot licking and other services. Prices are on the menu! Most guests sit at the tables, some eat out of a bowl on the floor.
The sign for La Nouvelle Justine
contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1997 Tom Trading, Inc. begins marketing a line of designer clothing for men based upon the clothing worn by men in the art of Tom of Finland.
1997 The US Supreme Court rules that the Communications Decency Act, which sought to censor cyberspace, is unconstitutional interference of free speech.
1997 US Television news programs shock the nation by broadcasting clips from home videos made in 1991 and 1993 showing US Marines enthusiastically pounding the sharp metal backs of awards pins into the bloodied chests of young paratroopers. Apparently the hazing ritual has been going on for years. Military officials expressed "shock" and "dismay."
1997 Pat Boone Pat Boone, pop singing star of the 1950's and 60's tarnished his squeaky clean Christian image by appearing on the American Music Awards telecast wearing a leather vest, dog collar, studded wristbands and flashing his 62 year old bare chest with temporary tattoos. Trinity Broadcast Network quickly canceled Boone's weekly gospel music show. On ABC's Good Morning America Boone later said, "God is into leather. The first clothes he made for anybody on this planet, he made them out of leather."

Pat Boone: The Time the He Went Heavy Metal and Hard Rock - In a Metal Mood, No More Mr. Nice Guy

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 18, 2023.
1997 Publication of
  • Between The Cracks, The Daedalus Anthology of Kinky Verse edited by Gavin Geoffrey Dillard
  • Bound To Be Free, The SM Experience by Charles Moser and JJ Madeson
  • Of men, ropes and remembrance, stories from Bound & Gagged magazine by Larry Townsend
  • Master of Masters by Larry Townsend
  • The Leatherman's Handbook Silver Jubilee Edition by Larry Townsend
  • Rainbow County and other stories by Jack Fritscher
  • HorseMen, Leathersex Short Fiction edited by Joseph Bean
  • 'Rasslers, 'Ranglers & Rough Guys, The Erotic Art of Matt edited by Joseph W. Bean
  • No Other Tribute: Erotic Tales of Women in Submission by Laura Antoniou
  • Some Women Edited by Laura Antoniou
1997 Jim Raymond is named American Leatherman, Leslie Anderson is named American Leatherwoman, and Max Steiner is named American Leatherboy.
1997 Patrick Richardson is named International Mr. Deaf Leather and Cool Cat is selected to continue as a second year with the title of International Ms Deaf Lather.
1997 Ariq Robinson named International Mr. Fantasy 1997.
1997 Rich Villagarcia is named Mr. Vulcan Rubber 1997, The third man to hold this title, the first since 1994, and apparently, the last to hold it.
ADDENDUM: The Leather Report with Guy Baldwin (8:26)

Produced by Jim Pfanner & Bob Khoury in 1997. This program features Guy Baldwin, M.S. talking about people coming out into fetish.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 18, 2023.
1997, Jan. Margo Frasier begins her term as Sheriff of Travis County, Texas. She is the first out lesbian to be elected sheriff in the US.
1997, Jan. New York S/M Activists formed by Leonard Dworkin and Susan Wright.
1997, Jan Mike Seimer is named Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather '97
1997, Feb The European Court of Human Rights upholds the original ruling in the British "Spanner" case.
1997, Feb The Black Guard of Minneapolis hosts their 20th Black Frost run.
1997, Feb. Mylez Edward and Dauphine Sowell are named Mr. and Ms Olympus Leather at the contest in New Orleans.
1997, Feb. Mark Frazier The Pantheon of Leather Awards are held in New Orleans, winners are: Man and Woman of the Year to Mark Frazier and pat baillie; Reader's Choice Awards to Jack Stice and David WW Walker (tie) and to Sarah Humble; Lifetime Achievement to Frank Puckett; Publisher's award to Jay Allen and Gary Chichester; Forebearer Award to Tony DeBlase; Club of the Year to Sandia Leather; Non Profit Organization of the Year to the Leather Archives & Museum; Club event of the Year 25th Anniv of The Eulenspiegel Society; Business of the Year to Leather Rack, DC; Business Person of the Year to Audrey Joseph; International Award to George Cameron. Regional Awards: Southeast to Darryl Flick; Rocky Mountain to Daniel Sonnenfeld; Midwest to Cara Hanes; Northeast to Michael Horowitz; Mid-Atlantic to Suzette Danick and Joe Morris; Canadian Regional to Trevor Jacques. The Local Community Service award to Wes Randall.
1997, April 7 Death of Jack Stice, International Master 1995. and leather activist in Atlanta, the southeast, and the nation.
1997, April 19 The first annual Leather Leadership Conference is held in New York City.
1997, May The Internet SM group Datenschlag and the AG SM& Oeffen-tlichkeit produce the first map of heterosexual SM groups in Germany. At this time there are 53 known groups in 45 cities.
1997, May Cannes David Cronenberg's film Crash is awarded a Special Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival "for originality, daring and audacity". Based upon J. G. Ballard's 1973 novel the film centers on a group of people who are erotically attracted to car crashes.
1997, May Gene Harrawood from Bloomington IL is named Mr. Bear Pride 1997 in Chicago.
1997, May 12 The Internet newsgroup soc.subculture.bondage-bdsm is formed.
1997, May Details magazine's "1997 College Sex Survey" reports that 27% of the college men they asked had done bondage with a partner, 23% more had fantasized about it. 26% of the women had done bondage with a partner and 25% more had fantasized about it. This is more than 50% of all college students who have at least fantasized about bondage! The same questions about SM got identical percentages from men and women 6% had done it, 11% more had fantasized
1997, May 23 -26, The International Mr. Leather Contest in Chicago names Kevin Cwayna as IML 1997.
1997, May 25 Driller is named as International Boot Black during the IML contest in Chicago.
1997, June The American film parody, Preaching to the Perverted, opens in the USA.
1997, June Mid America Conference names Rob Ridinger of Trident Windy City to the newly created post of MAC Historian.
1997, June German art publisher Taschen publishes a three volume boxed set of the complete run of Bob Mizer's Physique Pictorial. (Note: this is a complete run of issues still extant, there are no surviving copies of a few.}
1997, June 4 Shame on them American Airlines A full page ad is place in several American newspapers by the Family Research Council, Concerned Women for America, American Family Association, Southern Baptist Convention, Focus on the Family and Coral Ridge Ministries, condemning American Airlines for pro-homosexual business practices such as fair treatment of its gay and lesbian employees and its sponsorship of national and community based gay and AIDS service organizations.
1997, June 28 Master Roger and slave bill are named International Master and Slave 1997 at the contest in Denver, CO.
1997, July 4 The Eulenspiegel Society's Equestrian Club is founded.
1997, 4th of July weekend Kyle Brandon, International Mr. Drummer 1996-97 hosts A Gathering of Eagles at a private estate in Philadelphia. An all expense paid party for the country's "Leather A List" served as the setting at which $1000 checks were passed out to seven worthy recipients from around the country. The Leather Archives and Museum was one of the recipients.
1997, July 26 Joseph W. Bean arrives in Chicago to become the first Executive Director of The Leather Archives & Museum.
1997, Aug 16-17 The Orange County Leather Assembly hosts its fourth annual "Meet a Master" Weekend, this year featuring Guy Baldwin, M.S.
1997, Sept. Atons of Minneapolis celebrate their 25th Anniversary.
1997, Sept. 4 - 10 Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 26 in Douglas Michigan. Mel Austin receives the Caligula award and Tom Pscheit the J. Paul Eaton award.
1997, Sept. Leather Pride week in San Francisco.
1997, Sept. 25 -29 Jeffery Adler of Miami FL is named International Mr. Drummer and also receives the "Golden Whip Award" (bestowed by the constants) the first time any man has received both of these titles. dan hughes is named International Drummerboy.
1997, Oct. 3-5 Leather University's Dungeon 201, again brings instructors from all over North America to offer both basic and advanced courses to leather men and women in Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
1997, Oct. Living in Leather XII is held in Portland. Under bylaws revisions Mark Frasier becomes President and Jan Hall becomes vice president and president elect.
1997, Oct. 17-19 Tom of Finland The Tom of Finland Foundation's Erotic Art Fair, featuring hundreds of pieces of erotic are in all media by numerous artists from around the world. Los Angeles, CA.
1997, Oct. 24 - Nov. 2 Amsterdam Leather Pride Celebration.
1997, Oct. 27 The first version of Time Line of Sadomasochism is created by the Internet group Datenschlag in Germany. (Selected items indicated by "" are included in the current Leather History Timeline.)
1997, Oct. 31 Mr. Drummer Europe contest.
1997, Nov. Formation of The Red Chair, a pansexual group created to promote Safe Sane and Consensual BDSM in north central Alabama.
1997, Nov. 1 Women's Studies Conference at State University of New York, New Platz includes coverage of SM and leather topics that enrage members of the SUNY board of trustees, and the George Pataki, Governor of the state of New York.
1997, Nov. 7
ADDENDUM: The documentary Sick: The Life and Death of Bob Flanagan, Supermasochist is released. IMDb states:

Diagnosed with cystic fibrosis from a young age, performance artist Bob Flanagan shared his life and pain in his art, usually through sadomasochistic practices.

Sick - Short Trailer from Kirby Dick on Vimeo.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1997, Nov. 8 Mr. International Rubber 1998, Christoff Lehner, selected at a contest at the Cellblock in Chicago.
1997, Nov. 9 Mr. World Rubber 1998, Ketith Waltrip, selected at a contest at Man's Country and sponsored by International Mr. Leather.
1997, Nov. 14 - 16 Black Rose X, the tenth anniversary celebration of Black Rose, is held in Washington DC.
Correction: BR10, the Black Rose's 10th Anniversary conference, takes place at a Ramada Inn in New Carrollton, MD. It included fifty different educational presentations and what might be the largest SM party ever staged up to that time.

SEE ALSO: contrib. Ambrosio. Sept. 24, 2023
1997, Dec. Sundowner The US Supreme Court hears Joseph Oncale's sexual harassment case against Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc. Oncale was harassed by his supervisor and other workers on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. Lower courts had ruled that sexual harassment laws required the predators and victim to be of different genders. In 1998 the Supreme Court rules in Oncale's favor, extending sexual harassment law to same sex encounters.
1997, Dec. 25 Death of erotic artist Olaf Odegaard (born Dec 15, 1938)
1997, Dec. 27 Newsweek includes an article entitled "Lick Me, Flog Me, Buy Me!" by Rick Marin on the mainstreaming of SM.
Time Event
1998 Pacific State Universtiy Two professors at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Oregon, receive a $5000. grant from the state organ of the National Endowment for the Humanities to study "Mainstreaming and Identity Definition within a Sadomasochistic Subculture."
1998 Martin Hall is named American Leatherman, Mercea is named American Leatherwoman, and Terry Sapp is named American Leatherboy.
1998 The World's first gay rights organization, The Scientific Humanitarian Committee, founded by Magnus Hirschfeld in 1897 and disbanded under Nazi pressure in 1933, is re-launched as an association of autonomous regional groups.
1998 Publication of
  • Confessions of a Naked Piano Player by Torsten Barring
  • Juice, Electricity for Pleasure and Pain, by Uncle Abdul
  • Completely Queer, The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia by Steve Hogan and Lee Hudson
  • Czar, a novel of Ivan the Terrible by Larry Townsend
  • A Contagious Evil, The Mind of a Serial Killer by Larry Townsend
  • Leatherwomen III: The Clash of the Cultures Edited by Laura Antoniou
  • The Catalyst by Laura Antoniou
ADDENDUM: While studying for a master's of medicine in women's health at at the University of Melbourne, Helen O'Connell discovered the greater interior clitoris (which she suggested could be more accurately called “The Clitoral Complex”) and published research results that dramatically changed the understanding of the mysterious genital organ.

SEE ALSO: Helen E. O'Connell, John M. Hutson, Colin R. Anderson, Robert J. Plenter: "Anatomical relationship between urethra and clitoris." In: The Journal of Urology, 1998, page 1892-1897.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1998, Jan. 8 Avatar of Los Angeles, one of the continent's oldest SM clubs, celebrates their 15th anniversary.
1998, Jan 12 NLA: New Orleans Officially accepted as the newest chapter of NLA: International.
1998, Jan. 15-19 Leather Weekend & Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather contest in Washington DC, sponsored by Centaur M.C. Tony Mills of Miami Beach FL is named Mr, Mid-Atlantic Leather 1998.
1998, Feb. 13-15 Pantheon Of Leather Awards VII in New Orleans. Man and Woman of the Year: Joseph Bean and Jill Carter; Lifetime Achievement: Vern Stewart; Reader's Choice Tom Stice and Jill Carter; Forbearer: Chuck Renslow; Club: Black Rose; Non Profit Organization: David Weinbaun Foundation; Club event: Black Rose X; Business: Play House Studios and Gallery; Business person: Philip Turner; International Award: Jacques Happe of Amsterdam; Couple of the year (first year for this award): Jill Carter, Viola Johnson and Queen Cougar. Regional Awards: Southeast: Tom Stice; South Central: Michelle Buckle; Rock Mountain: Leslie Anderson; Northwest: Spencer Bergstedt; Western: Peter Fiske; Midwest: R. J. Chaffin; Northeast: Susan Wright; Mid-Atlantic: Jack McGeorge; Canadian George Cameron and Jay Wagoner. Local Community Service Award: Billy Lane. Publisher's Awards: Lance Brittain, Shelley Hagan and Kay Hallanger, and the San Francisco Eagle.
1998, Feb. 14 Golden Gate Guards The Interclub Fund holds the 32nd Annual Motorcycle Awards in San Francisco. The Golden Gate Guards and its members walk away with 22 honors, the Constantines received four awards and the California Eagles MC won three. A lifetime achievement honor is bestowed upon James Connor of the old Warlocks MC. The Community Service Award goes to Marcus Hernandez.
1998, Feb. 15 Charles Garrett from Orlando and Katherine from Norcrss GA are sashed as Mr. and Ms Olympus Leather during the Pantheon of Leather Weekend in New Orleans.
1998, Feb. 24 Off Center, a web-based radio talk show on leather /SM/fetish and related communities debuts with host Race Bannon interviewing Joseph Bean, Executive Director of the Leather Archives & Museum.
1998, Mar. The Leather Journal, issue # 96, appears as a tabloid newspaper, changing from it's previous magazine image. Commencing with this issue it will have free distribution in leather bars and other businesses but will still be available by subscription.
1998, Mar. 12 An exhibit, "Queer & Kinky Danger: Artists Relating to Leather/SM/Kink" opens at the Gay & Lesbian Historical Society of Northern California" in San Francisco. It runs through May.
1998, April 7 George Michael George Michael, British singer noted for songs such as "I Want Your Sex" and "Freedom," is arrested for performing a "lewd act" in Will Rogers Memorial Park in Beverly Hills. Four days later he appears on CNN to come out as gay and say that he is currently in a relationship with a man.
1998, April 17 - 19 Leather Leadership Conference II is held in New York City.
1998, April 18 Black Rose of the Washington DC area Publishes The Black Rose Guide to Hosting a Leather Event in time to be available at the Leather Leadership Conference II.
1998, April 21 The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom sponsors the first Leather Lobby Day, meeting with a number of Congress members' Legislative Assistants to discuss discrimination and hate crimes involving sexual-minority practices.
1998, April 24 - 26 American Brotherhood Weekend is held in Washington DC. American Leatherman '98 is Martin Hall from Rhode Island, American Leatherwoman '98 is Mercea from Chicago and American Leatherboy '98 is Terry Sapp from Baltimore.
1998, April 26 Death at age 90 of Dominique Aury, who as Pauline Reage, authored The Story of O.
ADDEDUM: A truly submissive woman is to be treasured, cherished and protected for it is only she who can give a man the gift of dominance. ~ Anne Desclos
"A truly submissive woman is to be treasured, cherished and protected for it is only she who can give a man the gift of dominance." ~ Anne Desclos
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1998, April 17-20 Indulgence '98, a new men only SM event, modeled after the Inferno, Delta and Boot Camp events, is held in Ft. Lauderdale FL, sponsored by the Ft. Lauderdale Leather Guild, Inc.
1998, May 23 The Mr. Ebony in Leather Contest is held at the Leatherneck bar in Chicago. Andre Macial is named the winner.
1998, May 23 Annual Meeting of the Leather Archives and Museum membership is held in Chicago. The person occupying the post of executive director of LA&M is made an ex officio member of the LA&M board of directors and Joseph Bean moves from his elected seat on the board to this new one. Chuck Renslow and Tony DeBlase are reelected to the board and Phil "Fluffy" Swenson is elected to fill the open seat. Hilton Flax is elected to fill the remaining portion of the three year term to which Joseph Bean had been elected.
1998, May 24 Billy Lane The 20th International Mr. Leather Contest held at the Congress Theatre in Chicago. Tony Mills, Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather becomes the 20th man to hold the IML title. A record 55 men compete, including Billy Lane, Mr. Seattle Leather, the first FtM transsexual to compete (he placed 10th).
1998, May 24 The first public performance of One Common Heartbeat is presented by composer Gary Aldrich, backed by soloists Joe Ricci and Kevin Tyrrell and the Chicago Gay Men's Chorus during the International Mr. Leather show in Chicago. The Leather Anthem had been written by Aldrich at the request of Chuck Renslow, executive producer of International Mr. Leather.
1998, May 24 The first public presentation of the video documentary In God we Trust, In Leather we Lust is shown at the International Mr. Leather contest in Chicago. The video was created by Yves J. Menou and Cyrl Zajac of The Underground Fire Tribe.
1998, May 24 The International Bootblack Competition is held during the International Mr. Leather weekend in Chicago. Matthew Duncan who boot blacks at the DC Eagle and is sponsored by Centaur MC wins.
1998, June 5 Leather Leadership Death, in New York City, of Leonard Dworkin, a longtime activist in the leather/SM community. He was a founder of NY SM Activists; one of the motive forces behind the Leather Leadership Conferences, Creator of the NLA Friends on line and many others of similar interest, a long time board member of The Eulenspiegel Society and editor of that organization's publication, Prometheus.
1998, June 11 Selection of the cover man for the 1999 South of Market Bare Chest Calendar. This year, sponsored for the first time, by Miller Brewing Company
1998, June 12 The first issue of Young Deviants, A newsletter aiming to broaden the Horizons of the inexperienced is published online by MMingle16@aol.com. The quarterly electronic newsletter is intended to provide basic safety and other information for young people interested in leather and SM.
1998, June 12 - 14 The third annual Southeast Leatherfest is held in Atlanta, GA
1998, July 9 Handing a resounding victory to the Defendants and a huge rebuke to the Plaintiff in the Scanlon v. Gay Male S/M Activists lawsuit, New York City District Court Judge Constance Baker Motley issues a decision dismissing all claims against the three individual GMSMA board members named in the suit and most of the claims against GMSMA, and only awarded Scanlon $500 - the absolute bare minimum possible - each for two incidents of copyright infringement.
1998, July 14 Chicagoland Discussion Group, a long running pansexual leather/SM organization holds its last meeting.
1998, July 17 - 19 Megan DeJarlais of Philadelphia is selected International Ms Leather 1998 at the contest in Atlanta.
1998, July 18
ADDENDUM: Frazier Botsford takes over Edge parties on July 18, 1998 renames the event The Crucible.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1998, July 31 - Aug. 2 Thunder in the Mountains, a pansexual SM conference featuring a large roster of well known presenters from all over North America is held in Denver. The nightly Play parties are great fun too. The Leather Archives and Museum's Traveling exhibit makes its first appearance.
1989, Aug 9 "Kink, A Women's Perspective" opens at the Leather Archives and Museum in Chicago. This first special exhibit in the Museum's gallery space features contributions of women to the art and literature of kink. The exhibit runs through Sept. 30.
1998, Aug. 20 ACLU The Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union hosts a symposium entitled Leather and the Law in Los Angeles.
1998, Aug. 21 - 23 Ohio Leather Coalition holds the First Annual LeatherFest, Cleveland.
1998, September
ADDENDUM: The Next Generation (TNG): Black Rose and TES simultaneous TNGs: Age restricted special interest groups for those 35 and under. This concept quickly becomes an international phenomenon for SM organizations worldwide, and opens the floodgates for young people curious about joining the larger SM community. Black Rose will maintain a continuously operating TNG until 2015

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1998, Sept. 4 - 7 Satyr MC hold their 37th Run to Badger Flats.
1998, Sept. 10 - 17 Chicago Hellfire Club hosts Inferno 27 in Douglas Michigan. Michael Blackburn receives the Caligula award and J. Weichert the J. Paul Eaton award.
1998, Sept. 26 The Mr. Drummer finals is held in San Francisco. Herve Bernard from Paris, France, Mr. Europe Drummer, is elected as the 20th International Mr. Drummer. Ryan Goldner, Mid-Atlantic Drummerboy from Philadelphia is selected as Drummerboy of the year.
1998, Sept. 30 The Leather Archives and Museum in Chicago hosts a party to mark the closing of it's first special exhibit, and of its exhibition space, which will be converted to work space to facilitate handling its ever increasing collection of leather memorabilia. Traveling exhibits will represent the LA&M at events around the country and the former exhibition space in Chicago will be used for cataloging, conservation and research of the collection.
1998, Oct. 2-4 Leather University's Dungeon 301 is held in Ft. Lauderdale FL. This series continues with even more female and bi and heterosexual participation.
1998, Oct. 6 Matthew Shepard In Laramie Wyoming, Matthew Shepard, a 21 year old gay man, and a student at the University of Wyoming, is lured from a bar by two men, viciously beaten, burned and left tied to a fence in freezing weather. He dies a few days later. The incident focuses national attention on Gay bashing and on hate crimes legislation.
1998, Oct. 9 - 11 The National Leather Association holds Living in Leather XIII in Dallas Texas. Jan Hall becomes President and Spencer Bergsted, Vice President and President Elect.
1998, Oct. 16 A Maryland court voids a decades old law criminalizing same-partner oral sex. The law, which dated back to 1916, made it a felony for lesbians and gay men to engage in oral sex and attached penalties of up to $1000 or 10 years in prison.
1998, Oct. 16 - 18 Black Rose of Washington DC holds BR '98. BR10, celebrating the club's 10th anniversary last year was such a success it will become an annual event!
1998, Oct. 28 - Nov. 2 Rubber Ball fetish party in London attracts over 3500 guests from around the world.
1998, Oct. 28 World premier of Razorblade Smile, at Prince Charles Cinema in London. The film is Jake West's homage to fetish vampires.
1998, November
ADDENDUM: The Debut of the Black Rose Dungeon Monitor Program, developed by Chris M, Dave J, and Trish A. This may only be the third DM guide ever written and is more comprehensive than the other two. The Black Rose DM Guide is highly influential and becomes the basis of DM training for other clubs from Montreal to Sidney, Australia.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1998, Nov. 23 Laws The Georgia Supreme Court, in a 6 to 1 decision, rules that the Georgia Sodomy Law is unconstitutional on the grounds of the "right of privacy". This is the same law that was upheld by the US Supreme court in June 1986!
1998, Nov. 26 Former President of Zimbabwe, Canaan Banana, is convicted of sodomy and sexual assault against 11 male aides. He claims that charges against him are fabricated by supporters of vehemently anti-gay Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe.
1998, Nov. 29 Norbert Lindner, the mayor of Quellendorf, Germany, is removed from office via voter referendum because of his plans to undergo gender reassignment surgery.
1998, Dec. The legislature of the Australian state of Tasmania votes to ban discrimination based upon sexual orientation, along with 19 other grounds, including pregnancy and breast feeding.
1998, Dec. In India the Supreme Court orders the government to provide bodyguards to the two female leads and the director of the film Fire, a lesbian themed work that has inflamed the zealots from the right-wing Shiv Sena part. More than a dozen cinemas across the nation have been ransacked, and all those involved in the making of the film have been threatened. "This film poisons our women. It makes them curious about something immoral." said a Shiv Sena spokeswoman.
1998, Dec. 1 Columbia Two gay men "marry" each other at Notary Office Number 46 in Bogota Colombia, the same place where heterosexual marriages take place. Luis Antonio Arias Bolivar and Isauro Rincon Angarita sign a joint-ownership-of-property contract stating that they are gay, love each other and desire economic union. The document was created by gay lawyer and activist German Humberto Rincon. The two men, wearing black and beige tuxedos respectively, watch as Notary Judge Rosa Falla Laiseca reads the document. Then they sign it, as do the numerous guests/witnesses. When the Judge signs it becomes official, Photos are taken and all leave for the reception.
1998, Dec. 9 The National Assembly of France passes a partnership registration measure that grants unmarried couples spousal rights in areas such as inheritance, housing, taxation, workplace benefits, social security and social welfare programs.
1998, Dec. 11 Police raid the gay bar, Tare, in Mexicali, Mexico, beating and jailing 14 patrons.
1998, Dec. 15 Mark Tewksbury In Canada, Mark Tewksbury, who won three Olympic swimming medals and set seven world records, comes out as gay. He had recently lost a six figure contract as a motivational speaker because he was "too openly gay." So he decided he needed to open the closet door all the way. Tewksbury became a prominent advocate for gay rights and gay causes in Canada and the world. On May 16, 2003, Tewksbury joined the board of directors for the 2006 World Outgames in Montreal and was named co-president.
1998, Dec. 16 The Supreme Court of the province of British Colombia rules that the school board of the Vancouver suburb of Surrey erred in banning books about gay relationships from kindergarten and first-grade classrooms.
Time Event
1999 MOD The Men Of Discipline: DC formally displayed and presented the original Leather pride flag during the 1999 Capitol Pride Festival in Washington, DC and at the Baltimore Gay Pride Parade to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the flag.
ADDENDUM: American trans woman Monica Helms designs a Transgender Pride Flag.

She explains the meaning of her design:

The stripes at the top and bottom are light blue, the traditional color for baby boys. The stripes next to them are pink, the traditional color for baby girls. The stripe in the middle is white, for those who are transitioning or consider themselves having a neutral or undefined gender.

Monica Helms' design for a Transgender Pride Flag

IMAGE SOURCE: SVG file Dlloyd based on Monica Helms design, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
ADDENDUM: Publication of Aftercare by Chris M, the first in depth article on the subject. (The standard works on how to do SM, up until then, had not addressed the subject in any depth.)

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
ADDENDUM: In the "TES-Friends" USENET list for the The Eulenspiegel Society, Gary Switch proposes the adoption of the term RACK (Risk Aware Consensual Kink.) As noted by -Raid- in his History of Kink on FetLife: This form of Lifestyle came about due to the growing dissatisfaction with SSC (Safe Sane and Consensual) within BDSM Lifestyles. It was also connected with a growing desire for more edge types of play that believed in Consent –Non Consent based agreements.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 23, 2023.
1999, April
ADDENDUM: Drummer magazine ceases publication with Issue 214. Robert Davolt is the final editor and publisher. But it will relaunch in 2019.
contrib. Ambrosio April 3, 2023.
1999, Jan. Beyond the Edge Cafe, Seattle's premier gathering site for the kinky community, closes its doors.
1999, Jan. Dean Ross of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is selected as Mr. Mid-Atlantic Leather. The Centaur MC's Mid-Atlantic Leather Weekend this year, for the first time, includes a bootblack competition which is won by a very popular woman, Tracy.
1999, Feb. 12 Dumb Laws Louisiana's sodomy law is removed by a 3-0 ruling of the state court of appeals. In February, the state's Fourth Circuit Court of Appeal reversed the conviction of a man found guilty of having oral sex with a woman. That case has been appealed to the state Supreme Court.
1999, Feb. 6 The California Eagles MC celebrated their 15th anniversary party at Jelly's Cafe, in San Francisco, CA.
1999, Feb. 14 Lords of Leather Ball, Bal Masque XVI was held on Valentines Day.
1999, May Kevin Shancady, a well-known and respected Leatherman from Denver, CO was on the May 4 ballot seeking a non partisan position on the Denver City Council (District 10). Kevin did not win.
1999, May Boudoir Noir, Canada's main Leather/SM/Fetish magazine was back in circulation. Founder Robert Dante of Toronto announced that a co-publication agreement with Bill Majors, video producer and president of Los Angeles-based Bon Vue Enterprises and B&D; Pleasures had been reached.
1999, Apr. 9-11 Beat Me in St. Louis, a educational pansexual event for the entire BDSM community, it was produced by St. Louis Leather and Lace.
1999, Apr. 16-18 The National Leather Association: Houston chapter held Spring Iniquity VIII. The weekend featured cocktail parties, food, fun, people events, a Sunday brunch with an awards ceremony.
1999, Apr. 22 Alan Selby The Mayor of Folsom Street, Alan Selby, became a US citizen on Thursday, April 22 in San Francisco, CA and quite a to-do it was. Alan founded the Mr. S Leather store.
1999, Apr. 23-25 NOWAt the NOW Lesbian Summit in Washington DC, April 23-25 the S/M Policy Reform Project opened the dialogue on the anti-SM policy contained within NOW's (National Organization of Women) Delineation of Lesbian Rights Issues, 1980. The outreach was extremely successful, with the S/M Policy Reform Project gaining supporters on the local, state and regional levels of NOW.
1999, May The first weekend in May a group of 40-45 members of the Leather/SM/Fetish community gathered in Dallas for a unique educational weekend produced by Dean Walradt named boys Training Camp.
1999, May/June
ADDENDUM: "Sorry Manners: Civility and Incivility in the Scene," the first critique of the Pansexual SM scene written by a member of that scene (Chris M), Petal and Thorn, May-June 1999

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1999, May. 15 Avatar Club Los Angeles held its annual Exploratorium at the LASFS Hall in North Hollywood.
1999, Jun. 3 The Ballet of the Dolls by the Atons of Minneapolis gave a special performance of Swan Lake...The Sequel for the Leather Community at the Loring Playhouse.
1999, Jun. 11-13 The Warriors Motorcycle Club of Los Angeles and CCMC of San Diego, CA hosted their 10th Annual Joint Run, Cowboys and Indians at Camp Wasewagon in the San Bernardino National Forest.
1999, Jun. 19 Leather Pride Night The 16th annual Leather Pride Night was held on Saturday, June 19. The auction raised $20,000 to be split among Empire State Pride Agenda, The Gender Identity Project at the Center, The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom and, for the 16th year, Heritage of Pride. Proceeds from the LPN raffle, a total of $2,500, will be donated to the Lesbian Herstory Archives.
1999, Jun. 20 GMSMA GMS/MA presented its third and most successful Folsom Street East Leather/SM/Fetish block party. The event attracted more than 12,000 men and women raised nearly $15,000 to benefit the New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project and the New York City Lesbian and Gay Community Services Center.
1999, Jul. 2-4 The Tarheel Leather Club of Greensboro, NC hosted Stars and Stripes in Leather IX: Nine Lives at a private camp ground near Greensboro. The SECC (South East Conference of Clubs) hosted its quarterly meeting during the weekend.
1999, Jul. 9-11 The New York Renegades held their annual summer run at a rustic retreat in the Delaware Valley, PA.
1999, Jul. 24 The Chicago Hellfire Club's infamous SM University resumed classes at the Leatherneck bar in Chicago's Loop.
1999, Aug. 6-8 The Teddy Bear Leather Club of Virginia (TBLC) hosted Campout '99: A Greek and Roman festival in Richmond, VA.
1999, Aug. 20-22 The Rogues Leather/Levi Club of Roanoke, VA held Tournament II: Southern Nites Under the Star.
1999, Sep. The Society of Janus celebrated its 25th anniversary with events designed to entertain and educate members and guests, with all proceeds being donated to community charities.
1999, Oct. 1-3 Knights d' Orleans celebrated their historic 25th Anniversary.
1999, Oct. 8-10 The Louisiana Power Exchange Association hosted Bayou Bash '99.
1999, Oct. 29 officers of the San Diego Police Department's Vice Unit entered the play party that Club X was holding and then issued citations to approximately six individuals. These six attendees were cited for lewd behavior and/or nudity in a public space. These citations were all classified as misdemeanors. The case became known as the San Diego Six.
1999, Nov. 10-14 The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) hosted Creating Change in Oakland, CA the weekend of November 10-14. There was a Leather Caucus for participants to discuss current SM activism and participation in the next year's Creating Change Conference. The New York S/M Activists sponsored a workshop titled Second Coming Out, with Randy Brown and Susan Wright.
1999, November 30
ADDENDUM: Salon.com publishes "Crashing the Black Rose" by Virginia Vitzthum on Nov. 30, 1999. It's about Vitzthum's experiences at the annual Black Rose conference at the Ramada Inn in New Carrollton, MD.

In a suburban Ramada Inn, 1,500 players gathered to teach and discuss the sexual art of power and pain.

contrib. Ambrosio Dec. 31, 2022.
1999, Nov. 20
ADDENDUM: On Nov 20, 1999, Frazier and a group of volunteers, move the Crucible into a new, fixed location on Buzzard Point. The Crucible will remain there for the next ten years.

contrib. Chris M. Dec. 2022.
1999, November 20
ADDENDUM: First annual Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDoR), a day to memorialize those who have been murdered as a result of transphobia. It was started to memorialize the murder of transgender woman Rita Hester in Allston, Massachusetts.

According to "Transgender Day of Remembrance: Why We Remember" by Gwendolyn Ann Smith on the Huffpost website:

In 1999 a handful of transgender people sought to highlight the need for awareness around anti-transgender violence. To that end, we held the first Transgender Day of Remembrance event in the Castro district of San Francisco, holding the names of those we'd lost in silent testimony.

It all started one night, when I spoke with a few other transgender people about the murder of Rita Hester in November 1998. I talked about how similar the death was to that of Chanelle Pickett just three years before. Both were transgender women of color who lived in Massachusetts, were last seen alive at a neighborhood club and died in mid-November.


Why do we remember? We remember for Rita Hester and Chenelle Pickett. We remember for Brandon Teena, for Gwen Araujo, for Marsha P. Johnson. We remember for Deoni Jones of Baltimore, Md., killed last February. We remember for Tyrell Jackson of Florida, killed on April 4, 2012. We remember for Coko Williams, killed in Detroit on April 3. We remember for Paige Clay, killed in Chicago on April 16. We remember for Brandy Martell of Oakland, killed on April 29, 2012. We remember for Tiffany Gooden, killed in Chicago on August 14. We remember for hundreds of others killed around the world in anti-transgender murders.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 3, 2023.
1999, Dec. TES Joseph Bean's Centurion Awards, designed to coincide with the grand opening of the Leather Archives and Museum's new building, were announced ahead of time. They were: Man of the Century Chuck Renslow, Woman of the Century Cynthia Slater; general honors to Pat Daley, Larry Townsend, Geoff Mains, Mack McKinnon, Pat Califia, The Eulenspiegel Society, Gay Male S/M Activists (GMS/MA), Chicago Hellfire Club, Tom of Finland and Tony DeBlase.
1999, Dec. Lance Brittain and Andre English raised roughly $1,400 for the Leather Archives and Museum and Gay and Lesbian Historical Society of Northern California in November. They also raised $144 for the ICF (Inter Club Fund) through a beer bust. In addition, they received a large number of memorabilia for the GLHS and Leather Archives.
1999, Dec. 12 Three Washington, DC area clubs, SigMa, Defenders and Potomac MC, held their Fifth Annual Toy and Gift Drive on December 12 at the DC Eagle and collected 10 bicycles, eight tricycles and dozens of toys for children with HIV from GrandMa House and kids from families affected by AIDS. $1,515.26 in cash was collected with $1,000 given to Joseph House, a hospice for people with AIDS in Adams Morgan. The rest was split between GrandMa House and Building Futures.