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The Leather History Timeline

5000 BCE to 1969

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Die Fledermaus archives historical documents
BCE: (Before Common Era)
Time Event
Ca. 5000 BCE rock drawings as described Creation of rock drawings at Ti-n-Lalan, near Fezzan in Libya, showing an animal headed creature with a gigantic penis, and an animal/man hybrid, having sex.
Ca. 2500 BCE Gilgamesh, King of Uruk, in the Sumerian poem cycles that constitute one of the oldest known pieces of literature, meets Enkidu, the only man who rivals him for strength and bravery. They become lovers and particularly enjoy wrestling with each other.
Gilgamesh and  Enkidu slay the Bull of Heaven
IMAGE SOURCE: public domain
2355 - 2261 BCE The reign of Egyptian King Pepy II Neferkare who, in what may be history's first homosexual short story, makes nocturnal visits to have sex with his general, Sisinne.
Ca. 1900 BCE Destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Too bad the bible is not more explicit about the reason. The interpretation hinges on the Hebrew word meaning "to know." The term is used 943 times in the Old Testament; only 15 of these times is it a euphemism for sexual activity. In the New Testament, the only reference to Sodom (Luke 10:10) identifies the sin as inhospitality. The story of Sodom and Gomorrah probably had nothing to do with sexuality.
1503-1354 BCE The reign of Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut who adopted male dress and even wore a false beard.
Head of a Sphinx of Hatshepsu
Head of a Sphinx of Hatshepsut, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, c. 1503-1482 B.C., found at Deir el-Bahri, Thebes. Red granite sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

This statue is one of six that were likely placed along the processional way into Hatshepsut's temple on the lower terrace. Only the head and shoulders of this statue were recovered.

Patches of blue paint on the false beard are still visible, as are traces of yellow and blue on the nemes royal headdress.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
Ca. 1250 BCE The Ani Papyrus shows the rite of the "animation of the phallus." It appears to be one of the earliest recorded examples of a blow job.
Ca. 1000 BCE The Israelite king Saul demands of David, as a bride-price for his daughter Michal, 100 Philistine foreskins.
Ca. 730 BCE "Krimon warms the heart of Simias" is one of several lines of homosexual graffiti that constitute one of the earliest know uses of the Greek alphabet.
7th Century BCE Ashurbanipal, the last Assyrian king, dresses in women's clothing most of the time. The cross-dressing is used to justify his eventual overthrow.
600 BCE After this date it becomes customary for Greek hoplites, the upper class warriors who fight in the phalanx, each to take a boy of 12 as a lover to train until he is 18 and can hunt and fight. In Crete a ritual kidnapping consecrates the pairing.
580's BCE Sappho's famed girls' school flourishes on the isle of Lesbos. Her exquisite love poems to students are the earliest known lesbian writings.
A 1st-century fresco painting showing a woman called Sappho holding writing implements from Pompeii Naples National Archaeological Museum in Pompeii, Italy.
IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain
Ca. 540 BCE The Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls at Tarquinia, with its fresco depicting one man anally penetrating another.
fresco as described
490 BCE
ADDENDUM: Creation of a mural in the Etruscan Tomba della Fustigazione (Tomb of the Whipping) near Tarquinia, Italy. It portrays two men and a woman having sex while one man hits the woman with a cane and the other man slaps her with his hand.

SOURCE: History of Kink by -Raid- on FetLife

IMAGE SOURCE: AlMare, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 7, 2023.
418 BCE, Dec. 25 Birth of Epaminondas, one of the great military geniuses of the ancient world. Like other Greek warriors he loved boys, but for him delight in boys was complete, he never married or produced an heir. His two favorite boys fell in battle and, by his order, were buried with him in his tomb.
Between 400 BCE and 200 CE
ADDENDUM: The Kama Sutra of Vatsayayana is published in India. As noted by Jillianne Hamilton, it is well-known today all over the world for being a sex guide, but it also features advice on love, living well, relationships, family and more.

SOURCE: The History of Sex: A Brief Timeline by Jillianne Hamilton.

According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)" (page 7):

It lists four ways of striking in the act of love; the areas of the body appropriate for this; and the lustful cries that the bottom may utter. The text specifies that beating, along with pinching and biting during intercourse, should only occur with the consent of the partner, as not all women find it arousing.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
4th Century BCE
Greek art piece showing a person with two heads and eight limbs. ADDENDUM: Plato writes The Symposium in which Aristophanes delivers a speech explaining the myth of how mankind consisted of three genders: male, female, and androgynous, and each person had four hands, four legs, two heads, two sets of genitals, etc.,. Zeus decided to cut each person in two resulting in only two genders: male and female.

SEE ALSO: Non-binary genders have Thousands of Years of Precedent at genderben.com

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
382 BCE, April 18 Birth of Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great. In 350 BC he leaves on a military expedition, taking with him 800 boys to be used for the pleasure of himself and his officers.
378 BCE The Sacred Band of Thebes is formed. This military unit consists entirely of 150 male couples and is based upon the belief that men fighting alongside their lovers would die rather than shame one another.
356 BCE, July 20 The birth of Alexander of Macedonia -- known to history as Alexander the Great -- king, general, world conqueror, and lover of men, particularly Hephaiston, whose death in 324 he mourns extravagantly, and the eunuch slave boy Bagoas, who had been a favorite of Persian king Darius.
338 BCE The Sacred Band of Thebes is annihilated by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander at the Battle of Chaeronea. The 300 stood their ground and perished.
333 BCE Alexander of Macedonia begins his campaign to conquer the Persian Empire, and takes Egypt and much of Asia before turning back in central India.
324 BCE The death of Hephaiston, lover of Alexander the Great.
323 BCE, June 10 Death of Alexander the Great.
300 BCE Addeaus of Macedon is quoted as saying, "When you meet a boy who pleases take action at once. Don't be polite, just grab him by the balls and strike while the iron is hot."
186 BCE The Roman Senate attempts to suppress the Bacchanalian rites in which, according to the historian Livy, there is more debauchery among the men with each other than with the women.
150 BC
ADDENDUM: In On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body Claudius Galen Of Perganon writes that “all the parts, then, that men have, women have too, the difference between them lying in only one thing, namely, that in women the parts are within, whereas in men they are outside.” He doesn't mention the clitoris.

contrib. Ambrosio April 6, 2023.
100 BCE, July 13 BCE Birth of Gaius Julius Caesar in Rome. Wife to every man and husband to every woman.
71 BCE Revolt of Roman slaves, led by Spartacus. The revolution is crushed by consuls Pompey and Crassus and the slaves are crucified along the Appian Way.
10 BCE, Aug. 1 BCE Birth of Claudius, Emperor of Rome. Robert Graves' novels, and Masterpiece Theatre's production of I Claudius enlightened us, but not about Emperor Claudius' contributions to the gladiatorial games or of his male lovers.
1 BCE Publication of Ovid's Ars Amatoria, the first self-help sex manual.
1 - 999 CE
Time Event
12 CE, Aug. 31 Birth of the future Roman emperor, Caligula
26 CE The Roman Emperor Tiberius (born Nov 16, 42 BC) retires to Capri, where he indulges in all forms of sexual exploration.
39 CE, Sept. 4 Birth of the future Roman Emperor, Titus. He was not a Tiberius or Caligula or Nero, or even a Claudius. But he did complete the coliseum, the site of some of the bloodiest activities yet to come in Roman history.
41 CE, Jan 21 Roman Emperor Caligula killed by a guard who had been frequently forced to kiss the royal middle finger in public, and other things in private. (Birth Aug 31, 12 CE)
45-68 CE Reign of Nero (born Dec. 15, 37 BCE), who as Emperor of Rome, would elevate torture to new heights as a spectator sport.
53 CE, Sept. 15 Birth of Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, who became the Roman Emperor Trajan, the first non-Italian emperor. His accomplishments were many, not only in battle, but in the construction of public works. All of the ancient sources discuss Trajan's Homosexuality candidly, differing only in the stories used to illustrate his sexual preferences.
69 CE, April 15 The Roman Emperor Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho), who literally rose to power on his knees before Nero, stabs himself in the heart.
76 CE, Jan. 24 Birth of Hadrian, who would become Emperor of Rome and lover of the beautiful Antinous (July 16 c.110) who drowned himself in the Nile at age 21, perhaps in as a self sacrifice to save the life of his lover and master.
ADDENDUM: According to the LGBTQ History Timeline Reference - GLSEN: Antinous, a 19-year-old man who was the Roman Emperor Hadrian’s favorite lover, mysteriously dies in the Roman province of Egypt. After finding out about Antinous’s death, Hadrian creates a cult that gave Antinous the status of a god and built several sculptures of him throughout the Roman Empire.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 27, 2023.
79 CE, Aug 24 Vesuvius erupts, thereby preserving the homoerotic, and other sexually explicit, wall murals that would surely have been destroyed by later Christian "civilizations".
188 CE, April 4 Birth of the Roman Emperor Caracalla. Gay -- but not leather, he certainly set the standard for a bath house!
3rd century CE St. Sebastian Sebastian, a handsome young Roman Centurion is beloved by the emperor Diocletian, who turned against him when he embraces Christianity. He was stripped and tied to a tree and shot full of arrows by his fellow centurions. But he survives only to die many years later in a second martyrdom when he is stoned to death. St. Sebastian has been called the patron saint of gays, and the patron saint of SM.
205, March 8 Birth of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who would become Heliogabalus, the boy Emperor of Rome. Blatantly homosexual he was married twice in one night choosing a well hung charioteer as his husband and a boy named Hierocles as his wife. He sent out his agents to round up the men with the largest penises in the Roman empire. Eventually his own guards shoved a sword up his ass and dumped him in a sewer. He was 17.
342 CE The emperors Constantius and Constans, having inherited much of the empire of their father Constantine, call for "exquisite punishment" for Homosexuality.
390 CE The Roman Emperor Theodosius sets the punishment for Homosexuality as death by burning.
533 CE Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, decrees that Homosexuality and blasphemy are equally to blame for famines, earthquakes, and pestilence. He orders castration for offenders.
693 CE The Council of Toledo declares that "sodomists" have infiltrated the Church and order that clerics who lay with men should be degraded, exiled, and damned.
809-813 Reign of Abbasid Caliph Al-Amin of Baghdad, whose mother becomes dismayed by his preference for male eunuchs and packs his court with girls disguised as boys. These "ghulamiyyat" then become a fashion in many Moslem courts.
955-964 Reign of Pope John XII who loves both boys and muscular young men, he dies at the age of 26 from a stroke while having sex with one of his beautiful young men.
1000 -1499
Time Event
1032 - 1044 Reign of Pope Benedict IX, who has been called the Christian incarnation of Elagabalus.
1106, Sept. 28 Robert II, gay son of William the Conqueror is captured in battle and imprisoned for the rest of his life.
1073 All known copies of Sappho's lesbian love poems are burned by ecclesiastical authorities in Constantinople and Rome.
1076 Archbishop Lanfranc in England orders a priest's benediction on a marriage, but for another 100 years poor people continue to marry without benefit of clergy.
1157, Sept. 8 Birth of Richard Plantagenet, Richard Lion Heart, Richard I, King of England and Duke of Aquitaine. His lover for many years was Philip, King of France. He was one of the era's most widely respected generals. But he produced no heirs and eventually his loathsome brother John ascended to the British throne. The result was the Magna Carta.
1210 - 1215 The Council of Paris declares sodomy to be a capital offense. This marked the start of a militant anti-sodomy campaign by the Catholic Church.
1252 St. Thomas Aquinas begins his theological teaching. He declares that God created sex organs exclusively for reproduction; homosexual acts were thus "unnatural" and heretical.
ca. 1260 The Legal School of Orleans orders that women found guilty of lesbian acts have their clitoris removed for the first offense; that they be further mutilated for a second offense; and burned at the stake for a third.
1268, Oct. 29 Frederick of Baden, Duke of Austria, willingly joins his condemned lover, 16 year old Conradin of Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen (Born March 24, 1252), and they are buried alive together.
1292 Europe's first known execution for sodomy takes place in Ghent.
1307, Oct. 13 Philip IV of France orders the arrest of all members of the Knights Templar. In the following years hundreds of Templars are imprisoned, tortured, and/or burned because of their supposed toleration as sinless of "acts against nature."
1310, Oct. 12 The Knights Templar are put on trial for heresy in France. Most recant the confessions made under torture, expecting pardon from and Pope Clement V, which is not granted. The French crown, and the church, thus gain control of the order's great wealth.
1323 In one of the earliest recorded trials for sodomy, Arnold of Verniolle is found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment with a diet of bread and water. Despite stiff church prohibitions against sodomy, the trial record shows that Arnold had little trouble finding sex partners.
1326 Hugh le Despenser the younger, the second lover of Edward II of England, is hung, after his genitals have been cut off and burned before his eyes, upon the order of Edward's wife, Isabella, and her lover, Roger Mortimer.
1327 Edward II of England is murdered by the insertion of a red hot poker into his rectum. (birth April 25, 1284)
1350 Welsh poet Daffyd ap Gwilym produces explicit ballads like "The Penis" and "Deer Copulating"
1373, Sept, 28 Birth of the painter Caravaggio, whose short, violent life encompassed drinking, brawling, murder & sodomy.
1431, May 30 Birth of Joan of Arc, at Rouen, France. She led the French armies against the British invaders and won battle after battle. Then she was captured by the British in Normandy and condemned to be burned at the stake because she refused to stop wearing men's clothing. Abandoned by most of the French, her friend Gilles de Rais tried to rescue her but was too late.
1440, Oct. 26 Gilles de Rais, best friend of Joan of Arc, is executed in Nantes, France, for the torture and murder of hundreds of children. (born Jan. 10, 1404)
1450-1453 Pope Nicholas empowers the Spanish Inquisition to investigate and punish Homosexuality.
1464 Pope Paul II elected to office. Like John XII he died while having sex, but the cause of his death was strangulation.
1469, May 3 Birth of Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian political philosopher. The Prince is a masterwork of mind control.
1471-1484 Reign of Pope Sixtus IV. His reign is purchased by his lover Pietro Riario who runs the church, including the Spanish Inquisition, until his death in 1474. After that time Sixtus entertains himself by having muscular young men strip and fight to the death, the survivor becoming his bed partner. When Sixtus was ill his physicians prescribe mother's milk, the pope suggests that the juice of young men would suit him better.
1474 A Rooster is burned at the stake for "the heinous and unnatural crime of laying an egg".
1475, March 6 Birth of Michelangelo Buonarroti, (death 1564) Italian sculptor, painter and poet. Not a leatherman himself but certainly gay. And where would we be without his David --- to become, among other things, FeBe's logo --- and his wrestlers in a 69 of testicle torture!
ca. 1480 Pico of Mirandola in "Against the Astrologists", describes a male acquaintance who is sexually excited by being whipped before sex. This is the first known case history of a masochist.
ADDENDUM: German Catholic clergyman Heinrich Kramer publishes the Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches), a treatise on witchcraft. If a woman's clitoris becomes engorged under stimulation, it proves she is a witch. The book refers to the engorged clitoris as the “the devil’s teat.”

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1494 Christopher Columbus's physician on his second voyage to the new world, wrote that the behavior of the natives was, "Detestable! Nauseating! Disgusting!" It was common practice among these Carib tribes to castrate boys captured from enemy villages and keep them as lovers until they were eighteen, then they were killed and eaten.
1500 - 1599 CE
Time Event
1500's Elena de Cespedes, a Spanish woman who lived as a man and married a woman, is discovered and immolated.
1513 Balboa, while exploring what is now Panama described homosexual activities among the natives he witnessed as "Abominable". He threw 40 of the offenders to his dogs.
Woodcut showing Balboa's soldiers burnig the Quarequa villagers en mase.
ADDENDUM: On October 5, 1513 in the village of Quarequa on the Isthmus of Panama, Vasco Nunez de Balboa ordered the killing of several hundred Panamanian natives in the village of Quarequa, including some forty men (including the native king's brother) who dressed as women and practiced sodomy. Two days later he "discovered" the Pacific ocean.

contrib. Ambrosio March 31, 2023.
1520, June 30 Inca Emperor Montezuma II dies at Tenochtitlan, Mexico. He is known to have cannibalized the boys he sodomized.
1526 A Spanish historian wrote that Carib men also had lovers that they did not intend to smother in butter and spices. These lovers were distinguished by wearing "naguas" or short skirts and jewelry their lovers had given them.
1530 In an Inca town in northern Peru, shortly after being conquered by the Spanish, there were fifteen women for every man, the men had been burned for suspected homosexual activities. By 1580 the area was still known for its gay activity.
1533 The "buggery" law is passed in England decreeing a penalty of death. This is the first time the offense is covered under civil, rather than church, law.
1541 The birth of the painter El Greco (death 1614) "His men are martyrs or conquerors; in their gaunt visages he traces the weariness and the final exhaustion of the body in surrendering to the mystical vision, or the savage meditation of those entrusted with the flagellation of Heretics."
ADDENDUM: French physician Charles Estienne dissected clitoris for the first time. In 1546 he published La dissection des parties du corps humain in which he identified its sole purpose as urination and called it “the shameful member.”

contrib. Ambrosio April 13, 2023.
1550 - 1555 Reign of Pope Julius III who, upon election as Pope, made his 17 year old lover a member of the College of Cardinals, and also appointed him Secretary of State. His orgies with teenage Cardinals were common knowledge. Most were horrified but the Archbishop of Benevento wrote a book, In Praise of Sodomy, dedicated to the pope.
1551, Sept. 19 Birth of Henri III, King of France. In the final years of his reign (he died at 37) he surrounded himself with handsome young men and abandoned himself to hedonistic joys. He took particular delight in flogging the backs of penitents marching in holy procession.
ADDENDUM: Larry Townsend made Henri III the subject of his historical novel The Fairy King (a.k.a. ManSword) in 1970

contrib. Ambrosio April 13, 2023.
ADDENDUM: The anatomist Renaldus Columbus "discovered" the clitoris which he called the "love of venus" and a "seat of lust." He identifies it as the seat of pleasure for women.

(He is not the first Columbus to make a dubious historical discovery.)

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1563 The Roman Catholic council of Trent concludes that sex is bad and denounces "paintings calculated to excite lust." Pope Paul IV has clothes painted onto the naked figures in Michelangelo's painting, Last Judgement, in the Sistine Chapel.
ADDENDUM: In Florida, the Spanish military authorities execute a French interpreter named Guillermo for having a same-sex relationship with a Native American male. It is the first known execution for sodomy in North America.
SOURCE: The History of Sex: A Brief Timeline by Jillianne Hamilton.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1564, Feb 26 Birth of English playwright Christopher Marlowe. "All they that love not tobacco and boys are fools."
ADDENDUM: The remark is disputed. It is attributed to Marlowe from the testimony of Richard Baines, a government informer, in 1593.
CITE: Wikiquote

Many of Marlowe's plays included a theme of Homosexuality --- most notably The Troublesome Reign and Lamentable Death of Edward the Second, King of England, with the Tragical Fall of Proud Mortimer, a play about the homosexual king of England.

According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The English Poet Christopher Marlowe (circa 1580) writes in an epigram:

When Francus comes to solace with his whore,
He sends for rods and strips himself stark naked;
For his lust sleeps, and will not rise before
By whipping of the wench it be awaked.
I envy him not, but wish I had the power, To make his wench but one half hour.

CITE: Dühren, Eugen (d.i. Iwan Bloch): „Englische Sittengeschichte“. 2. veränderte edn., Louis Marcus Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 1912, Vol I, p. 441ff.

Painting of a young man, perhaps Christopher Marlowe, 1585. © The Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
IMAGE SOURCE: The British Library

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1568, Oct. 3
ADDENDUM: During a Spanish expedition through what later became known as North Carolina, Captain Juan Pardo encountered a native American man wearning a woman's apron. The cacique (tribal leader) explained that the man in the apron was his brother and that he was not a man for war and for other things that men do, but he went as a woman and did women’s tasks.

contrib. Ambrosio March 31, 2023.
1570's Rome: Montaigne reports that at the Church of St. John, Catholic priests perform same sex marriages. A contemporary historian reports that same sex couples married in St. John's are burned in the city square.
1576 Brazil: Spanish explorers report that some native women "give up all duties of women and imitate men...Each has a woman to serve her, to whom she says she is married, and they treat each other and speak with each other as man and wife."
ADDENDUM: It was Pedro de Magalhães de Gândavo, Portuguese explorer, who encounted the Tupinamba Indians of northeastern Brazil. He described those native women as "Amazons."

The [women] wear their hair cut in the same way as the men, and go to war with bows and arrows and pursue game, always in company with men; each has a woman to serve her, to whom she says she is married, and they treat each other and speak with each other as man and wife.

CITE: Walter Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988, p. 233

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1580, April 1 The Netherlands: Civil Marriage is first established.
1583 The Third Provincial Council of Lima, in Peru, tells natives that sodomy whether with another man, or with a boy , or a beast ...carries the death penalty, ...and the reason God has allowed that you should be so afflicted and vexed by other nations is because of this vice that your ancestors had and many of you still have.
1585 In one of the earliest recorded cases of masochism, Sister Mary Magdalene de Pazzi begs other nuns to tie her up and hurl hot wax at her. She also made a novice at the convent thrash her.
"Ecstasy of Saint Mary Magdalene de’ Pazzi" by Alessandro Rosi

IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons
1590 In "Lectiones antique," Ludovicus Caelius Rhodiginus describes a man who needs to be whipped to have an erection.
Time Event
1600, March 18 Fourteen year old Catalan de Erauso escapes from a Basque convent then goes on to serve in the Spanish army dressed as a man. In 1620, the Pope gives permission for her to continue to dress in men's clothing.
Painting of Catalan de Erauso, in short hair and male dress looking very masculine
This painting is attributed to Juan van der Hamen, Public Domain
IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons

ADDENDUM: Queerstorian on worldqueerstory.org argues that Catalina de Erauso was a lesbian and not a trans man:

Now, there’s a lot of discussion with Catalina about her sexuality and gender identity. And that’s a worthwhile discussion given that basically none of the terms we used to describe these things existed back then. Of course, as with pretty much any LGBTQ+ historical figure, there are those who are try to claim that she was straight and cisgender, and she only pursued women to keep her disguise intact. Some of these historians — and I use that term loosely — have invented romantic relationships with men that do not appear anywhere in her autobiography. In fact, she does not discuss any romantic anything towards men in her autobiography (or any other writings), despite there being several romantic and sexual encounters with other women. The autobiography, in my opinion, is not at all unclear about her exclusive attraction to women. She never expresses any interest in men, and virtually every woman who isn’t related to her is a potential love interest.

The only case that can really, justifiably be made for Catalina being straight, is if she’s transgender rather than cisgender. And that is totally a possibility. The only reason I’ve discussed her in the context of being a lesbian rather than being a transgender man is because — in my opinion (she’s not still around to ask) — it seems like she’s always aware she’s a woman disguised as a man. It doesn’t seem — to me — like she identifies as a man at all. I could be totally wrong on that, especially given that she continued to dress like a man even after her secret became public knowledge.

1602, July 6 Birth of Jerome Duquesnoy in Brussels Belgium, The eminent sculptor was working on projects at the cathedral of St. Bavon in Ghent when he was arrested for sodomy with two acolytes of the church who had served as his models. He was strangled and then burned at the stake.
1610 The Virginia Colony passes the New World's first sodomy law, decreeing the penalty of death for offenders.
1611, July 27 Birth of Murad IV, Sultan of Turkey. His name was synonymous with cruelty, torture and unspeakable horror. His reign was bloody, and the armless, legless, tongueless victims of his tyranny numerous.
1619 Virginia: The first slaves are brought to North America. Quaker John Woolman later notes that despite their not being allowed legal marriage, "Negroes marry after their own way."
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Francis Bacon, a noted gay man who coined the term "masculine love," publishes "The Advancement of Learning—an argument for empirical research and against superstition." This deductive system for empirical research earned him the title "the Father of Modern Science."

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1624 Richard Cornish of the Virginia Colony is tried and hanged for sodomy. He is the first person in America known to be convicted of this offense.
1624 - 1653 The rule of Nzinga as King of Angola, this female to male cross dresser fought and won many battles against the Portuguese army.
Hand colored lithograph of the woman known as 'Queen Ginga' in Portugal. Her name was Nzinga Mbande, although her name when converting to Christianity was 'Ana de Sousa'. Drawing from the collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London.
ADDENDUM: Hand colored lithograph of the woman known as 'Queen Ginga' in Portugal. Her name was Nzinga Mbande, although her name when converting to Christianity was 'Ana de Sousa'. Drawing from the collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1625, Feb. 7 In Virginia, Thomas Hatch is sentenced to a whipping, the loss of one ear, and seven years of servitude, for daring to speak against the execution of a man for the crime of buggery.
1631 Mervyn Touchet, the Earl of Castlehaven, is put on trial for sodomy. He is found guilty and beheaded.
1631 Rembrandt sells rude etchings, thought to be of his wife pissing.
1638 Massachusetts orders every town to "dispose of all single persons." In Connecticut, bachelors are taxed 20 shillings a week.
1639 The German doctor Johann Heinrich Meibom describes the sexual excitement of some men when whipped in De usu flagrorum. He reasons that this is because the sperm fluid in the kidneys is heated by whipping and then descends to the testicles. Variations on this theory will dominate the thinking on SM until the 19th century.
1641-42 The Massachusetts Bay Colony incorporates the language of Leviticus 20:13 into it's laws. Other New England colonies soon follow suit.

If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

Leviticus 20:13. King James Version (KJV)
1649 Sarah White Norman and Mary Vincent Hammon are charged with "lewd behavior each with other upon a bed" in Plymouth MA. Charges against Hammon are dropped, but Norman is convicted and has to make a public confession. She is the first woman in America know to be convicted of lesbian activity.
1644, April 10 Birth of John Wilmot, later Earl of Rochester, British writer. His poetry extols the joys of every possible type of human coupling.
1654 Execution of Jerome Duquesnoy (born 1602), court sculptor of Flanders. he is found guilty of sodomy with two church acolytes who had served as his models, strangled and burned at the stake. His brother, Francois, also a sculptor, created Brussels' famous Pissing Boy fountain.
1655 The colony of New Haven expands its definition of sodomy - a capital offense - to include sexual relations between women.
1659 In France, by Royal decree, secret marriages and abductions are summarily abolished.
1661 In New England, the first Colonial divorce. Massachusetts averages one a year until 1760.
1661 - 1750 All the Southern colonies, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania pass laws prohibiting interracial sex and marriage.
1662-1723 The reign of Emperor Kang XI, who first took steps to prohibit consensual Homosexuality in China.
ADDENDUM: Jane Sharp, an English Midwife, publishes The Midwives Book: or the Whole Art of Midwifery. In the books she writes The Clitoris is a sinewy hard body, full of spongy and black matter within it, as it is in the side ligaments of a mans Yard, and this Clitoris will stand and fall as the Yard doth, & makes women lustfull and take delight in Copulation, and were it not for this they would have no desire nor delight, nor would they ever conceive.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
ADDENDUM: Based on his study of cadavers, Dutch scientist Reinier De Graaf (1641–1673) produced a monograph on the female genital tract. It included the most detailed anatomical reference to the clitoris to date.

In the monograph he observed If these parts of the pudendum had not been endowed with such an exquisite sensitivity to pleasure and passion, no woman would be willing to take upon herself the irksome and nine-months long business of gestation, the painful and often fatal process of expelling the fetus, and the worrisome and care-ridden task of raising children.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10, 2023.
1677 Using the newly invented microscope, Dutch researchers Leeuwenhoek and Ham observe human sperm for the first time.
1681 The young Count de Vermandois, the son of Louis XIV of France by Louise de La Valliere, applies for admission to a secret fraternity of homosexuals active, but underground, in the French Court. Because the young count is so indiscreet in his activities, his father discovers his orientation, and the existence of the fraternity. Louis has his son whipped in his presence and then exiles him.
1694 First mention of the Cerne Abbas Giant, a huge chalk drawing on the side of a hill near Dorchester, England. The naked giant with club and erect phallus is supposedly prehistoric. But why was it not noticed until now? Some suspect a 17th Century hoax designed to annoy the Puritans.
The Cerne Abbas Giant: A hill figure near the village of Cerne Abbas in Dorset, England. 55 metres (180 ft) high, it depicts a standing nude male with a prominent erection and wielding a large club in its right hand.

IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons
Who's this penis? - Cunk On Britain - BBC Two

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1694, Nov 21 Birth of Francois Marie Arouet, better known as the French philosopher/writer Voltaire. He once ended a letter to a male friend, "I kiss your rod." Should we consider Candide a masochist?
1698 Kristian Franz Paullini confirms Meibom's theory in Flagellum salutis, but claims that blood is warmed by whipping, which then excites the sperms in the testicles.
1700 - 1799 CE
Time Event
1700's In the Prussian state of Uuerttemburg, cripples and blind persons are not permitted to marry.
REQUEST: I haven't been able to confirm or locate anything further about this entry. I couldn't find anything similar to it on the Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochism.

"Uuerttemburg" might be a misspelling. Tony DeBlase might have meant Württemberg. But Württemberg was historically located in the old Duchy of Swabia --- not Prussia. Presently it is located within the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in Southern Germany.

I would appreciate if someone can provide me with more information and a citation.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1712, June 28 Birth of Jean Jacques Rousseau (death July 2, 1778). By his own reports, except for one relationship, the artist was a lifelong unfulfilled masochist, dating from a school spanking when he was 11. In one affair, he had a Mistress who dominated him thoroughly, but even she refused to re-enact his much desired spanking.
ADDENDUM: Philip, Duke of Wharton, establishes the original Hellfire Club in London in 1718. Other exclussive clubs adopt the name afterward.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 19, 2023.
1720 Anne Bonny and Mary Read, partners who dressed as men and sailed the seas are tried for Piracy.
Pirate Queens Anne Bonny and Mary Read
1728 - 1810
The life of Chevalier D’Eon a sexually ambiguous cross-dressing French Spy (October 5, 1728 - May 1810)
Painting of Chevalier D’Eon in female dress.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan 19, 2023.
1730, Sept. 17 Birth of Baron Friedrich von Steuben, aid to Frederick the Great, who was in charge of training the Prussian army until there were objections to "indecent liberties" with young men. He then offers his services to the Continental Army in America and joins Washington at Valley Forge. There he organizes and disciplines the men into a powerful striking force. When he retires he adopts two handsome young men to become his heirs, and he probably continues to train and discipline them.
1730, Nov. 6 The future Frederick the Great of Prussia, 18, (born Jan. 24, 1712) is forced by his father to watch the torture and beheading of his lover, Lt. Hans Hermann von Katte, after the two of them were caught trying to run away together. Later as king, on learning that a particularly well-endowed soldier had been arrested for "bestiality with his horse," he is reputed to have replied, "Fool -- don't put him in irons; put him in the infantry."
1730-31 Authorities announce the discovery of an extensive homosexual network in Amsterdam. Three hundred prosecutions resulted and 70 people, including boys as young as 14, were executed.
1740, June 2 the Birth of the Marquis de Sade.
1740 China's first sodomy laws are enacted by Manchu Qing regime, which outlaws male Homosexuality.
1745, June 25 Benjamin Franklin writes "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress", a letter addressed to a young man about channeling sexual urges. The letter was not published in collections of Franklin's papers in the United States until the 20th century.
1746 - 1766
ADDENDUM: Francis Dashwood establishes the most infamous "Hell Fire Club" in 1746. They hold meetinsgs until 1766. Members include Benjamin Franklin, Chevalier D’Eon (the sexually ambiguous cross-dressing French Spy who lived October 5, 1728 - May 1810), George Selwyn (the "gentleman sadist."), and Lady Mary Wortley Montague.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 19, 2023.
ADDENDUM: According to the LGBTQ History Timeline Reference - GLSEN: Thomas Cannon wrote what may be the earliest published defense of Homosexuality in English, 'Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify’d.'

No original copies are known to exist, but the following excerpt was included in the 1750 indictment of Cannon's printer, John Purser.

Among the many Unspeakable Benefits which redound to the World from the Christian Religion, no one makes a more conspicuous Figure than the Demolition of Pederasty. That celebrated Passion, Seal’d by Sensualists, espoused by Philosophers, enshrin’d by Kings, is now exploded with one Accord and Disown’d by the meanest Beggar. Wherefore since Fashion discountenances, Law punishes, God forbids, the Detested Love, we may present it in it’s studied Attitudes, and the lively colouring, with which the Master-hands of the Ancients have so pompously overspread it, free from Apprehension of exciting in any Breast so preposterous, and Severe-treated an Inclination. What Charm then held so many Sages and Emperors, clear Heads and hale Hearts? Inform me, what was that which like a chrystal expanded Lake drew all Mankind to bathe entranc’d in Joys, too mighty every one for our poor Utterance? Not the Flavour of forbidden Fruit: Every Dabbler knows by his Classics, that it was pursu’d and prais’d with the Heighth of Liberty. Was it the Perfection of a gradually lessening Shape? or, you in turn demand, was it the Firmness, yet Delicacy of Masculine Limbs? Hush; the Beauty-engrossing Sex will over-hear us. In Time, was it the more equally close Pressure, a certain Part afforded? Let the Adepts in the Abominable Practice pronounce. With wond’rous Boast curst Pederasts advance, that Boy-love ever was the top Refinement of most enlighten’d Ages; or, never in Supreme Degree prevail’d where liberal Knowledge had not fix’d his Seat, and banish’d crampsoul Prejudice. When polish’d Greece bow’d her once laurell’d Head to all-subduing Rome, frequent Journeys to and fro wore a capacious Channel, thro’ which to the great Victrix roll’d the proud Streams of Learning, Taste, and Pederasty. The Theology of the Ancients plainly Shews, they preferr’d the horrible Passion to the Love of Women; blooming Hebe resigns to dazzling Ganymede, who ever after enjoys the Place of Cup-bearer to Jupiter. Lucian a most witty Ancient, has two Dialogues upon this Subject; in one Ganymede is courted; in the other Juno is reprimanded for disparaging that fair Boy; both so extremely entertaining, I make no Doubt, they will be with Pleasure accepted in the Room of any thing, I am able to produce: And here let me Beg Leave to declare once and for all, that I shall patch-work, or as some may think, variegate, my plain English Stile with no Greek and Latin Quotations; will nevertheless constantly keep in view the main Sense of my Authors; shall not in the mean Time hesitate to alter, omit, and add an Expression, or even an entire Paragraph, under the Restriction, that it is perfectly agreeable to the manifest Turn of the Composition, being I take for granted, the Reader will prefer a Spirited, yet equally Just Version to a dull dogg’d Translation, perpetually failing in the ridiculous Attempt of transfusing unattainable Greek and Latin Idioms into a meer modern Language …. I paraphrase, or, use ancient Writers only as a Basis: If you like what you meet with, is it not enough?

CITE: Cannon, Thomas. “The Indictment of John Purser, Containing Thomas Cannon’s Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify’d.” Edited by Hal Gladfelder and Dudley Ryder Knight. Eighteenth-Century Life (Duke University Press) 31, no. 1 (2007): 39–61.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1749 Publication of Fanny Hill, by John Cleland. The novel about a London prostitute is immediately suppressed, but it has enjoyed enormous popularity for more than two centuries.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In John Cleland’s „Fanny Hill: The Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure“, the female protagonist meets an „unhappy man“ who is „in a habitual state of conflict with and dislike of himself for being enslaved to so peculiar a taste, by the fatality of a constitutional ascendant, that render’d him incapable of receiving any pleasure till he submitted to these extraordinary means of procuring it at the hand of pain.“

CITED by DACHS: Cleland, John: „Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure“. G. Fenton, London 1748/49, cited from Noyes, John K.: „The Mastery of Submission“. Cornell University Press, Ithaca et al. 1997, p. 84

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1749, Jan. 29 Birth of King Christian VII of Denmark, whose physician assigned him a sadistic male lover who beat him regularly.
1753, Sept 20 Birth of Tippu Sahib, the last maharajah of Mysore, who spends his life resisting British designs on India. The "Tiger of Mysore" demonstrates his feelings for the British by personally supervising the gang rape of each captured soldier.
1753, Oct. 18 Birth of Jean Jacques Regis de Cambaceres in France. Under Napoleon he became the primary architect of the Napoleonic Code. He was discreet, but not secretive, about his Homosexuality and it was through his influence that the Napoleonic Code, and many later laws based upon it, legalized private consenting homosexual acts between adults. (died: Mar. 8, 1824)
1754, Sept 9 Birth of William Bligh, later to become renowned as Captain of H.M.S. Bounty. He survived the mutiny and the long voyage in an open boat, while all of the mutineers perished on Pitcairn Island. And he certainly knew how to have a man flogged!
1755, Sept. 4 Birth of Hans Axel, Count von Fersen, in Stockholm Sweden. General, Statesmen, and lover of three different Swedish kings. The reason for his horrible death has never been satisfactorily explained. A savage mob tore him to pieces in the streets of Stockholm as police looked on and did nothing. He had been beaten with canes and umbrellas and then kicked to death.
1758, May 6 Birth of Francois de Robespierre, a leader of the French revolution, he led in sending many of the nobility, and their supporters, to the torture chambers, and to the guillotine. He ended up there himself.
1763, Oct. 29 By order of the King of France, the Marquis de Sade is committed to Vincennes fortress for excesses committed in a brothel which he has been frequenting for a month.
1768, Apr. 3 On Easter Sunday, at about nine o'clock in the morning The Marquis de Sade accosts Rose Keller, she accompanies Sade in a cab to Arcueil. There, in his rented cottage, he orders her to undress, threatens her with a knife, and flogs her.
ADDENDUM: As noted by -Raid- in his History of Kink on FetLife:

The Birchen Bouquet is a work of pornography first published around 1770, reprinted in 1826 by George Cannon, in 1860 by William Dugdale and again in 1881 by William Lazenby (when it was said to have been printed at Birchington-on-Sea). consisting of a compilation of flagellation stories, mainly of women by women.

When it was republished in 1867, it included new articles lifted from The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine, a magazine that ran in England from 1852 to 1879.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 27, 2023.
1772, Sept. 3 Verdict: The Marquis de Sade, and his man servant Latour, are found guilty. The former of crimes of poisoning and sodomy, and the latter of the crime of sodomy, and are condemned to expiate their crimes at the cathedral porch before being taken to the Place Saint-Louis "for the said Sade to be decapitated.. and the said Latour to be hanged by the neck and strangled... then the body of the said Sade and that of the said Latour to be burned and their ashes strewn to the wind." On Sept 12 Sade and Latour are executed in effigy on the Place des Precheurs, in Aix.
1775, July 9 Birth of Matthew Gregory "Monk" Lewis in London. A master at writing the silly, overripe 18th Century Gothic romance novels that are still fun to read. In his Ambrosio, or the Monk (1795) Ambrosio is seduced by a woman driven to blind nymphomania by demons, who enters the monastery and Ambrosio's bed disguised as a boy. His sins are found out and he is tortured by the Inquisition, sentenced to death, and bargains with the Devil, who destroys him.
1776, Jan. 17 M. Trillet comes to La Coste to claim his daughter, who is known in the chateau as Justine. During an argument with the Marquis de Sade, Trillet fires a pistol shot at him almost point blank, but misses. He runs off to the La Coste township where he babbles about what has happened. Later Catherine (aka Justine) sends someone to find her father, who returns to the chateau. Here she tries to calm him but Trillet, who has brought four other men back with him, flies into another rage and fires a second shot into a courtyard where he thinks Sade to be. All five men then flee.
1776, Feb. 13 The Marquis de Sade is arrested by inspector Marais at the Hotel de Danemark, on the rue Jacob and taken to Vincennes fortress where, at 9:30 that night, he is formally entered as a prisoner.
1776, April 18 In a letter from the Marquis de Sade to his wife: "I am in a tower closed in by nineteen iron doors, with light reaching me only through two little windows, each with a score of iron bars." He complains that in over the two months he has been in prison he has been allowed only five walks of one hour each, "in a sort of tomb about forty feet square surrounded by walls more than fifty feet high."
1776, Sept. 7 After winning a trial, and escaping from authorities, the Marquis de Sade is again incarcerated at Vincennes prison.
1778, March 10 Lt. F. G. Enslin is drummed out of the Continental Army for "attempting to commit sodomy with J. Monhart, a soldier."
ADDENDUM: According to the LGBTQ History Timeline Reference - GLSEN: Thomas Jefferson revises Virginia law to make sodomy (committed by men or women) punishable by mutilation rather than death
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1780's In the United States, colonial laws become state constitutions. Bigamy is prohibited, the marriage of a lunatic is void, and age requirements are set. Marriages can be annulled for impotence and blood relations.
1782, July 12 The Marquis de Sade completes the manuscript of his "Dialogue between a Priest and a Dying Man".
1784, Feb. 29 The Marquis de Sade is transferred from the Vincennes prison to the Bastille.
1785 The Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue includes the phrase "gentlemen of the back door" as a slang term for gay men.
1785, Oct. 22 The Marquis de Sade begins the final revision of his draft of a major work: The 120 Days of Sodom or The School for Libertines.
1788 The French doctor Francois Amedee Doppet confirms Meibom and Paullini's theory. He expands it by pointing out that women always have warm vaginas after whipping. At the end of his article "Das Beisseln und sein Auswirkunauf den Geschlechtstrieb" he gives safety tips for flagellants. This is the first known SM safety text!
1788, Mar. 1 The Marquis de Sade begins work on his short novel Eugenie de Franval, which he completes in six days.
1789, July 2 The Bastille logbook notes that "The Count de Sade shouted several times from the window of the Bastille that the prisoners were being slaughtered and that the people should come to liberate them."
1789, July 4 At 1:00 AM, as a result of a report made to Lord de Villedeuil on the Marquis de Sade's conduct on July 2, he is transferred to Charenton Asylum by Inspector Quidor.
1789, July 14 The Bastille is stormed and the Marquis de Sade's cell is sacked. His furniture, his suites, linen, his library and most important, his manuscripts are "burned, pillaged, torn up and carried off."
ADDENDUM: Captain William Bligh, in Command of The Bounty, stops in Tahiti and encounters the Mahu (meaning "in the middle"), the third gender people in Hawaiian and Tahitian cultures.

The Meaning of Mahu (Video 2:03)

contrib. Ambrosio March 31, 2023.
1790, Apr. 2 de Sade is released from Charenton Asylum.
1791 Justine by the Marquis de Sade (1740-1841) is first published in France.
1791, Oct. 22 First performance at the Theatre Moliere of Sade's Le Comte Oxtiern ou les effets du libertinage. A second performance occurs two weeks later which gives rise to a disturbance and causes Sade to suspend further performances.
1792 Civil marriage is established after the revolution in France.
1794 Prussia becomes the first German state to abolish the death penalty for Homosexuality (which had been in effect since 1532), and replace it with flogging and imprisonment.
1800 - 1849 CE
Time Event
The entry for We'wha has been moved to 1886.
1801, March 6 Sade and his publisher, Nicolas Masse, are arrested. Police searches find manuscripts and printed works, including Juliette and La Nouvelle Justine and a tapestry depicting "the most obscene subjects, most of which were drawn from the infamous novel Justine."
1801, April 2 The Minister of Police decides that a "trial would cause too much of a scandal which an exemplary punishment would still not make worthwhile" So de Sade is "placed" in Sainte-Pelagie prison as "administrative punishment" for being the author of "that infamous novel Justine" and of that "still more terrible work Juliette."
1805 Publication of Ein Jahr in Arkadien (A Year in Arcadia), by Herzog August von Sachsen Gotha, the first homoerotic book in the German Language.
1809 New York: In Genton vs. Reed, the state Supreme Court recognizes common-law marriage, which won't be declared void until 1901.
1809, Mar. 31 Birth of Edward Fitzgerald, English writer who cruised the Suffolk docks "looking for some fellow to accost me and fill a very vacant place in my heart."
1809, Dec. 29 Birth of William Gladsone (death May 19, 1898) The four time Prime Minister of England was dedicated to self flagellation both to punish himself for impure thoughts and to achieve a pleasure from the act, which he then repented.
1810 The Napoleonic Code is instituted in France. It eliminates all laws forbidding Homosexuality.
Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse: Napoleon crowned by Time, writing the Code civil

Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse: Napoleon crowned by Time, writing the Code civil [Rueil-Malmaison, châteaux de Malmaison et Bois-Préau]
IMAGE SOURCE: Wikimedia Commons
1810 The mother of a schoolgirl accuses Marianne Woods and Jane Pirie, mistresses at a boarding school for girls, of "improper and criminal conduct" with each other, The British courts debate whether a sexual relationship between women was even possible. Lillian Hellman used his plot 120 years later as the basis for her play The Children's Hour.
1813, April 28 Prince Mikhail Kutuzov, who lead the defense of Moscow against Napoleon, dies of a heart attack while having sex with a soldier.
1814, Sept 13 On this day Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star Spangled Banner." This deserves a healthy "so what?" from most readers of this list. But Key set his flag waving poem to music originally titled "Anacreon In Heaven". The Anacreonitics, who delighted in copying the Greek poet's style, seemed to miss the subject, which was largely about boys he diddled. OK, whatever the etymology the anthem is unsingable.
1814, Dec. 2 Death, at Charenton Asylum of Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, the Marquis.
1815, June 18
ADDENDUM: A British-led coalition defeated the Grande Army of Napoleon Bonaparte near Waterloo in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (now Belgium.)

When Bonaparte's Imperial Guard assaulted the coalition's line and then retreated under fire, the rest of Bonapate's troops paniced and fled.

To understand how this might be significant to Leather history, read Napoleon Bonaparte's Imperial Guard in my "Marginalia on the Old Guard, Leather Traditions, and BDSM History."

  • Herold, J. Christopher, The Battle of Waterloo (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1967)
  • Howarth, David, Waterloo: Day of Battle (New York: Antheneum, 1968)
  • Keegan, John, The Mask of Command (New York: Penguin, 1987)
  • Lachouque, Commandant Henri, (Translated by Anne S. K. Brown), Anatomy of Glory: Napoleon and His Guard (London: Greenhill Books, 2006)
  • Roberts, Andrew Napoleon and Wellington (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001)
  • Sutherland, John Patrick, Men of Waterloo (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1966)
  • Vakesh, Steve, "Napoleon's Imperial Guard" Sun Jul 4, 2004 2:36 PM (post to mailing list quoted with the author's permission)

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 30, 2023.
1816 – 1876
ADDENDUM: Life of Charlotte Saunders Cushman (July 23, 1816 – February 18, 1876), the 19th Century stage actress famous for playing both male and female roles. She played Romeo opposite her sister Susan Webb Cushman as Juliet. Off-stage she had tempestuous love affairs with women.

Charlotte and Susan Cushman as Romeo and Juliet

contrib. Ambrosio Dec. 29, 2022.
1820, May 12 Birth of Florence Nightingale, who is alleged to have said, "I have lived and slept in the same bed with English Countesses and Prussian farm women...No woman has excited passion among women more than I have."
1821, Nov. 11 Birth of Feodor Dostoeovski (death Feb. 9, 1881). The writer's letters to his beloved Anna are peppered with direct references to his fetish for her feet. His contemporary, Turgenev, called him "the Russian Marquis de Sade," perhaps suggesting more than the Anna letters reveal.
1824, Nov. 6 In France the Marquis Astolphe de Custine is sadistically gang-raped by a group of soldiers with whom he had made an assignation.
1825, Aug. 28 Birth of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, German sexologist and activist.
1826 Karl Ernst von Baer discovers the human ovum.
1828 The English Parliament closes a loophole in its definition of the capital crime of buggery. It would no longer be necessary to demonstrate "The actual Emission of Seed" to convict someone of buggery or rape.
1828 First publication, in Leipzig, Germany, of the Memoirs of Casanova.
ADDENDUM: Creation of the Berkley Horse.

According to the Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochism: The Berkley Horse is a BDSM apparatus, designed by Theresa Berkley in 1828 for erotic flagellation. She referred to it as a 'chevalet'.

For Theresa Berkley, the owner of a flagellation brothel in Charlotte Street no. 28, London, a special whipping bench is constructed which becomes generally known as the „Berkley Horse“. The original of the Berkley Horse goes to the London „Society of Arts“ after her death.

What became of the Berkley Horse is unclear. An illustration can be found in Fraxi, Pisanus (d.i. Henry Spencer Ashbee): „Index Librorum Prohibitorum: Being Notes Bio- Biblio- Icono-graphical and Critical on Curious and Uncommon Books“. Privatdruck, London 1877, but only in the original edition, not in the reprint.

  • Noyes, John K.: „The Mastery of Submission“. Cornell University Press, Ithaca et al. 1997, p. 12ff
  • Dühren, Eugen (d.i. Iwan Bloch): „Englische Sittengeschichte“. 2. veränderte edn., Louis Marcus Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 1912, Vol. I, p. 431ff.
  • Fraxi, Pisanus (d.i. Henry Spencer Ashbee): „Index Librorum Prohibitorum: Being Notes Bio- Biblio-Icono-graphical and Critical on Curious and Uncommon Books“. Privatdruck, London 1877
IMAGE SOURCE: Historical drawing, FAL, via Wikimedia Commons

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1830 Publication in France of the two volume work La Marquise de Gange, of which de Sade is the anonymous author.
1833, Jan 28 The birth of Charles George "Chinese" Gordon, military hero of Imperial Britain and martyr at Khartoum. He was fond of picking up street urchins, bathing them, feeding them and mending their clothes with his very own needle and thread."
1834 - 36 Heinrich Hossli, a Swiss milliner, publishes his two volume set Eros: On the Love of Men, in German. It collected all the examples he could find of homosexual love in ages past -- Greek, Roman, and Persian love poems and manuscripts - and was one of the first books in modern times to give a positive view of Homosexuality.
1835, June 15 Birth of Adah Isaacs Menken (death Aug. 25 1868). This most famed sexpot of the Victorian age was the star of "Mazeppa." She flashed apparent nudity in the face of Emperor Franz Josef -- he liked it. She was also the lover in reality, or publicly held fantasy, of many famous men including numerous crowned heads and chiefs of government. She was once paid by Dante Gabriel Rosetti to spend the night with poet Charles Swinburne, giving him the flogging he wanted, possibly in an attempt on Rosetti's part to convince the poet that women were desirable sex partners.
1836 Death of Threse Berkeley who supervised a flagellant brothel at 28 Charlotte St, London. Ms. Berkeley is the inventor of the Berkley bench/horse, a specialized piece of furniture for flogging and bondage.
Threse Berkely photo portrait.  She is well dressed and showing more than a bit of leg.  (Saucy!)

According to the Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochism:

Theresa Berkley was owner and mistress or a high-class flagellation brothel in London in the 1820s & 1830s.

Her memories that had been announced for publication long in advance are held back by the executor of her will, Dr. Vance, and are not published even after his death. Her numerous boxes with correspondence – reported to have included very compromising letters – were probably destroyed by Vance. Nevertheless, hints towards these memories can be found sometimes; it is not clear whether they have been privately printed at some point.

  • Dühren, Eugen (d.i. Iwan Bloch): „Der Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit. Ein Beitrag zur Kultur- und Sittengeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Mit besonderer Beziehung auf die Lehre von der Psychopathia sexualis“, Vol. 1 of „Studien zur Geschichte des menschlichen Geschlechtslebens“. 6. edn., Hermann Barsdorf, Berlin 1917, p. 211f.
  • Hirschfeld, Magnus: „Geschlechtsanomalien und Perversionen. Ein Studienbuch für Ärzte, Juristen, Seelsorger und Pädagogen“. Nordische Verlagsgesellschaft, Frankfurt, Stockholm 1955
1836 The last execution for Homosexuality takes place in Britain, although the death penalty for homosexuals will remain on the books until 1861.
1836, Jan 27 Birth of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, author of Venus in Furs. The man who put the "M" in SM.
1837, April 5 Birth of British poet Charles Algernon Swinburne who wrote many lines in praise of switches on asses.
1840, Aug. 14 Birth of German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in Mannheim, Germany
1843 Massachussetts repeals its 138 year old anti-miscegenation law.
1843 Hungarian physician Heinrich Kaan publishes his report named Psychopathias sexualis, reinterpreting sins of the flesh as psychological disorders. The theological terms "deviation", "aberration", and "perversion" are introduced into medicine.
ADDENDUM: According to the Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochism:

The Ruthenian physician Heinrich Kaan publishes his study „Psychopathia sexualis“, in which sins of the flesh are reinterpreted as diseases of the mind. Following this initiative, other physicians and psychiatrists also begin to use medieval theological terms of disapproval like „deviation“, „aberration“, and „perversion“. Originally, these had referred to „false“ religious beliefs or heresy; now they begin to turn into (pseudo)medical concepts. The whole process is known in cultural history as the ’medicalization of sin’.

  • Kaan, H.: „Psychopathia sexualis“. L. Voss, Leipzig 1844
  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992
1844 In The Queen vs. Millis, common law marriages are declared illegal in England.
1844, March 30 Birth of Paul Verlaine, poet and lover of poet Arthur Rimbaud (born Oct 20, 1854). He was imprisoned for two years after shooting his lover. He wrote "Sonnet to an Asshole" which begins "Dark and wrinkled like a deep pink, / It breathes, humbly nestled among the moss / Still wet with love..."
1844, July 25 Birth of Thomas Eakins in Philadelphia. The great American artist specialized in painting muscular, nude male models, nude male athletes and nude male bathers.
1844, Aug. 29 Birth of Edward Carpenter, the great English "sexual emancipator." Believing the effeminacy of "Uranians" a myth, he affected a form of macho dress, as did his working-class lover George Merrill, that make them both look, almost a century later, awfully contemporary.
1844, Oct. 15 The birth of Friedrich Nietzche. (death Aug. 25 1900). The philosopher was not an ardent of SM, but listed among the four women in his life one married woman whom he flogged during sex and who, dressed as a man, beat him senseless before another sexual encounter. Also, a photo of Nietzche shows him as one of two gentlemen horses "pulling" a cart on which Lou Andreas-Salome (not "the" married woman) crouches with a knotted whip raised.
A comical scene laid out by Nietzsche, as a sort of a lament by both himself and his friend, Paul, the two of whom had both recently been rejected after proposing marriage to one Lou Salomé (the relentless 'cart driver'). Photographed in the studio of Jules Bonnet in Lucerne in 1882.
1846, Feb. 20 New York City policeman Edward McCosker is dismissed for "indecently feeling the privates" of a male passerby while on duty.
1850 - 1899 CE
Time Event
1852 - 1879
ADDENDUM: As noted by -Raid- in his History of Kink on FetLife:
The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine was a magazine that ran in England from 1852 to 1879, that when in 1867 the correspondence section had been expanded, found itself full of material about the attractiveness of corsetry and cross-dressing. Content was lifted from the magazine and included in The Birchen Bouquet in 1867.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 27, 2023.
1854, Feb. 16 Birth of English writer Horatio Forbes Brown. When he died in 1926 his executors burned most of his unpublished works, attempting to hide his taste for sailors, footmen and other strapping members of the lower orders. One of his surviving poems depicts a boring society musicale in which every stanza ends with the line, "But I liked their footman John the best."
1856, May 6 Birth of Sigmund Freud in Freiberg, Austria.
1857 French physician B. A. Borel champions the concept of physical and mental "degeneration" that is also used to explain "incorrect sexual behavior". The concept will dominate psychiatric thinking until Freud.
ADDENDUM: According to the Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochism:

The deeply religious French physician Bénedict-Auguste Morel holds the theory that bodily and mental degeneration are the reasons also for incorrect sexual behavior. Until Freud, this theory dominates the psychiatrists’ thinking, and is the basis for Krafft-Ebing’s theories. For the Nazis, it is one rationale for the mass murder in the name of „Rassenhygiene“ (racial hygiene).

  • Morel, Bénédict Auguste: „Traité des Dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l’espèce humaine et des causes que produisent ces variétés maladives“. J.B. Baillière, Paris 1857
  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992
  • Shorter, Edward: „A History of Psychiatry“. John Wiley, New York 1997, p. 82

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1857, Feb. 22 The birth, in London, of Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scouts, army officer, and homosexual.
1858, June 12 Birth of Henry Scott Tuke, British painter and grand master of romantic boy painting. He was an athlete who took great pride in his splendid body and was obsessed with painting nude boys and experimented, and succeeded , in developing a special technique for capturing on canvas the effect of sunlight on naked skin.
1859, Feb. 2
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The British physician and essayist Henry Havelock Ellis is born in Croydon. Between 1897 und 1928, Ellis publishes the „Studies in the Psychology of Sex“ in seven volumes. He discerns that sadism and masochism are no contraries, and that the pleasure of both variants is limited to the sexual context. In England his works are forbidden until 1935. In his autobiography, he writes about his own urophilia (usage of urine in sexual context) and declares, „It proved of immense benefit to me, for it was the germ of a perversion and it enabled me to understand sympathetically the nature of perversions.“

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Grosskurth, Phyllis: „Havelock Ellis: A biography“. New York, Alfred Knopf, 1980, p. 284.
  • Ellis, Havelock: „My Life“, London, Spearman 1967 (orig. 1939), p. 68ff.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1861 England eliminates the death penalty for male homosexual acts; offenders are now subject to imprisonment for ten years to life.
1862, Aug. 6 Birth of Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, professor of classics at Cambridge where the students were only too happy to satisfy his tastes as a boot-fetishist. He wrote of one young man, "I liked him to stand upon me when we met."
1864, Sept. 1 Birth of Roger Casement in Ireland. In the course of British consular service, he exposed the atrocious conditions imposed on gatherers of wild rubber in the Congo and similar conditions in South America. He was knighted for his services. But, though an Ulster protestant, he became an ardent Irish nationalist. He was arrested and tried for treason. What sealed his doom was the admission as evidence of his diaries which recorded all of his sexual encounters, itemizing both the amount of the transaction (if the stud was for hire) and the size of his equipment. It made for sensational evidence in 1916: "Stanley Weeks, 20, stripped, huge one, circumcised; swelled and hung quite." "Enormous 19 about 7" and "4 thick; into me." Casement was hanged on Aug. 6, 1916, a martyr for more than Ireland.
1865, July 15 Death of James Miranda Barry (1795-1865) a Major General and Surgeon in the British Army with a highly distinguished career and a reputation as a rake who was known to flirt openly with the best looking women in the room. When a charwoman was preparing the body for burial it was discovered that the Major General was female.
ADDENDUM: composite of several images of James Miranda Barry On the web site for the Science History Institute (sciencehistory.org), Rebecca Ortenberg writes:

Today we might call Barry a trans man: someone who was assigned female at birth but who identified as a man and transitioned their name and appearance to align with that understanding of themselves. Barry could not have used the word trans to describe himself—it was first used in this context in 1974—but his story has many elements that transgender people today might find familiar. As historian David Obermayer observed, "My experiences allow me to see a kinship with Barry’s identity and his struggle, particularly at the end of his life, to make sure that identity was respected."

Yet most historical accounts still refer to Barry as female, placing him in a category much beloved in the popular imagination: that of the woman who dresses as a man to chase fortune or love. It’s a very old, sometimes apocryphal, tradition that includes 6th-century Chinese legend (and modern-day Disney hero) Mulan as well as the protagonists of “Sweet Polly Oliver” and other broadside ballads from 16th- to 19th-century Britain. In these traditional songs and their modern interpretations, women dress as men to join their true loves at sea or on the battlefield. Historians, such as Peter Boag and Catherine Baker, have pointed out that, in reality, women who cross-dressed probably had more practical reasons for doing so. For example, a woman might have dressed as a man in the 19th-century American West to travel safely, or in 17th-century England to support her family after her husband’s death.

CITE: "How History Keeps Ignoring James Barry" by Rebecca Ortenberg. October 20, 2020. on the Science History Institute.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1866 Superstition & Force by Henry Charles Lea published in Britain. Edited and republished as The Ordeal by Edward Peters in 1973.
1867, Aug. 29 While speaking to a conference of jurists in Munich, Karl Ulrichs becomes the first known person in modern times to publicly declare himself a homosexual (though not using that word) and to speak out in favor of gay rights (obviously, not using those words).
SEE ALSO: Hubert Kennedy, Ulrichs: The Life and Works of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: Pioneer of the Modern Gay Movement (Boston: Alyson, 1988), 107.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1869 Karl Maria Kertbeny, writing anonymously, uses the term "Homosexual" in a pamphlet calling for repeal of Prussia's sodomy laws. This is the earliest know use of this term. It began appearing in US medical journals in the 1890's and in general usage during the 1920's.
SEE ALSO: Rictor Norton, The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity (Washington: Cassell, 1997), 67.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1869, Dec. 8 In Austria Leopold von Sacher-Masoch begins correspondence with Fanny Pistor, aka Baroness Bogdonoff, aka Mistress Wanda, his Venus in Furs.
ADDENDUM: As noted by -Raid- in his History of Kink on FetLife:

Debut of the first vibrator. Developed by an American physician, George Taylor, M.D., it was a large, cumbersome, steam-powered apparatus. Taylor recommended it for treatment of an illness known at the time as "female hysteria." Hysteria, from the Greek for "suffering uterus," involved anxiety, irritability, sexual fantasies, "pelvic heaviness" and "excessive" vaginal lubrication -- in other words, sexual arousal. However, since it was the Victorian era, women were not considered to be at all sexual and it was therefore deemed a disease. Physicians of that era treated hysteria by massaging sufferers' vulvas until they experienced dramatic relief through "paroxysm" (orgasm). Unfortunately, hysteria was a recurrent condition and repeated treatment was often necessary. Taylor touted his steam-driven massage device as speeding treatment while reducing physician fatigue.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 12, 2023.
1870 The first American novel to touch on gay themes, Joseph and His Friend, by Bayard Taylor, is published. But the homosexual elements are so subtle that a non-gay reader could easily miss them.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Sacher-Masoch publishes his novel „Venus im Pelz“ (Venus in Furs), which becomes a bestseller.

Following this, circles of readers and fans of Sacher-Masoch form, which are the germ cell of the sadomasochistic subculture. In personal ads, too, people search for like-minded people and possible partners referring to Sacher-Masoch’s writings.

  • Bahnen, Peter: „Zur Sozialgeschichte des Sadomasochismus“. In: „Homosexualität und Wissenschaft II“, Schwulenreferat im ASTA / FU Berlin, Verlag Rosa Winkel, Berlin 1992, pp. 11–26)
  • Krafft-Ebing, Richard von „Psychopathia sexualis“, 14. Edition 1912, Reprint Matthes & Seitz Verlag 1997, p. 130
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1871 - 1943
Photograph of Hanns Heinz Ewers ADDENDUM: Life of German Decadent Author Hanns Heinz Ewers (3 November 1871 – 12 June 1943.) Ewers wrote the screen plays for important films in the early German cinema (including Der Student von Prag.) He is known today primarily for his horror fiction (such as "The Spider" and the Frank Braun trilogy) and short stories in the conte cruel genre (such as "The Execution of Damiens" and "Fairyland.")

His work features fatal men and femme fatales. It includes motifs of cross-dressing, sadism, masochism, and mutilation. Two more of his themes relevant to this timeline are therianthropy and what we would refer to today as transsexualism. He saw the two conditions as being related: In his fiction hs characters occasionally have "souls" that are out of sync with their physical gender and even species.

In Vampire (translated here by Guy Endore), an Opera Diva explains her unique theory of animal magnetism.

The cat's soul in a human being longs for the tomcat. The tomcat as he is-­ with tail and paws and mustache. But here the matter becomes complicated: she docs not long for the tomcat! She is searching for the tomcat's SOUL-and this yearning is unconscious and instinctive. Her human brain docs not help her at all-on the contrary, whenever possible it will lead her astray so that in many millions of cases the poor soul docs not know at all what she is really looking for! Throughout a whole long bodily existence, she will grope in the dark, she will long and yearn and never know for what! And if by chance she finds in another human being a soul of her kind, she will be happy but without knowing why! But in most cases she, the unfortunate blind cat, will offer herself to a fox or an ape or a guinea pig! You can see it every day, in thousands of marriages.

In "The Death of Baron Jesus Maria von Friedel" (tanslated here by Joe Bandel), he describes the tragic situation of a man's masculine and femine aspects at war with each other:

I wish to assert that the psyche of any individual is not of a single sex but contains both male and female aspects. We may honor our manhood but that does not stop the feminine in us from breaking through from time to time, thank God. It is a great deficiency when this does not happen.

Even the way this feminine aspect is aroused within the Baron’s psyche in such a crude manner appears to be only a surface consideration for me. Such perceptions and feelings must be addressed as completely normal and natural.

In a thoroughly masculine body there is a psyche with pure masculine sexual feelings. I use the word psyche as a word image to make a quick point. There is also within this same body a feminine psyche that perceives and feels in a sexually feminine way. In general these feminine feelings and perceptions are not strong enough to overcome all of the inhibitions that are contrary to its expression.

The natural instinctual feelings of the male body stand in opposition to those of the female aspect and support the male psyche instead. While in theory we have both male and female aspects equally within ourselves, under normal conditions the desire of the male body for a woman remains stronger and the feminine is only a mask that shows from time to time.

In the case of Baron von Friedel I see an unusually sharp exaggeration of this classic phenomenon in a manner that I have often observed before but never in such pronounced form.


This reminds me amusingly enough of the old fable of Plato and the three sexes of ancient times. It puts this strange love into an entirely different light.

For the average citizen love between a man and a woman is the simplest thing in the world. But when you consider it more closely things become immensely complicated. Such as a man that feels like a woman but loves a woman and a woman that feels like a man yet loves a man!

This intricate problem resolves itself finally in the entirely natural, normal feelings of both sexes that resound within each of them. The mutual feelings are experienced as normal and only slightly tainted by a hint of inversion.

Frontplate of the novel "Alraune" showing a nearly naked femme fatale in a subterranean setting feeding a mandrake plant to a monster
A scene in this story occurs at a meeting of Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäre Komitee.)

Ewers supported the Nazis' rise to power by writing flattering books and screen plays, but the Nazis later censored his film Hans Westmar (based on the life of Nazi martyr Horst Wessel) and banned his writings.

He was born in the same year as foundation of the German Reich and died two years before it was defeated and divided at the end of World War Two.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 7, 2023.
May 15
The newly formed German empire adopts a penal code that includes the infamous Paragraph 175, outlawing male Homosexuality. The new law becomes a catalyst for the nascent German homophile movement.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

From a clause in Prussian law the paragraph § 175 enters the German Reichsstrafgesetzbuch. It says: „Unnatural sexual acts between male persons or between humans and animals are to be punished by incarceration; civil rights can also be forfeited.“ The conviction numbers under § 175 in the criminal statistics range from 300 to 700 until 1924, whereas at the end of the Weimar Republic, the numbers rose to about 800 to 1100 convictions per year.

CITED by DACHS: www.uni-wuerzburg.de/rechtsphilosophie/glaw/bv006389.html

Furthermore, according to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

At the foundation of the German Reich, only the distribution of obscene texts and pictures is made a punishable offence in the Reichsstrafgesetzbuch, article § 184.

„Obscene“ is explained as „obscenity in a sexual context that could hurt the sense of shame of normal-disposed persons“.

CITED by DACHS: Seim, Roland / Spiegel, Josef (Ed.): „Ab 18 – Zensiert, Diskutiert, Unterschlagen“. Kulturbüro Münster e.V. 1995, p. 15

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1872, Aug. 21 Birth of artist Aubrey Beardsley, who drew many men with gigantic phalluses and many asses being caned. Beardsley's professional affiliation with Oscar Wilde ruined him and he died from tuberculosis less than three years after Wilde's famous trial. It is believed that Beardsley was not himself gay and that his ruin was largely a case of "guilt by association".
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Beardsley draws numerous sadomasochistic scenes, like in 1895 a frontispiece for the flagellant’s club in London, which is said to relay to a close group in the Victorian society. In 1897, he draws „Juvenal whipping a woman“.

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Néret, Gilles „Aubrey Beardsley“, Taschen Verlag Cologne, 1998
  • Dühren, Eugen (d.i. Iwan Bloch): „Englische Sittengeschichte“. 2. veränderte edn., Louis Marcus Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 1912, Vol. II, p. 310ff.

Earl Lavender's mistress flogging him
Frontispiece from Earl Lavender by Aubrey Beardsley

IMAGE SOURCE: The original uploader was Nihil Kainer at German Wikipedia. - Transferred from de.wikipedia to Commons., Public Domain

"Juvenal Scourging Woman" (1896) by Aubrey Beardsley
"Juvenal Scourging Woman" (1896) by Aubrey Beardsley


contrib. Ambrosio. January 2023.
1873, Jan. 28 In France the birth of writer Sidomie-Gabrielle Colette (d. 1954), who wore a bracelet engraved "I belong to Missy."
1874 For the Term of His Natural Life by Marcus Clarke published in Australia. US edition in 1973.
1875, March 7 Birth of Maurice Ravel, French composer. Gay but no record of his being into leather. However, his Bolero is among the best dungeon music possible, talk about slow build up to an exciting crescendo!
1875, April 15 Baloonists Sivel and Croche-Spinelli die in a fall over India. Buried together in Pere-Lachaise Cemetary in Paris, their monument depicts them lying together, naked, hand in hand, partially covered by a sheet.
1877, April 30 Birth of Alice B. Toklas. Throughout most of her life, this selfless woman's major occupation was the care and maintenance of Gertrude Stein.
1879, Jan. 1 The birth of E. M. Forester, British novelist, who had as his lover for half a century a virile, handsome, married, London policeman who granted his most elemental wish: "to love a strong young man of the lower classes and be loved by him and even hurt by him."
1879, July The first erotic magazine, The Pearl, a Journal of Facetiae and Voluptuous Reading, consisting of stories with flagellation themes and attributed to Algernon Charles Swinburne, is distributed among high society. It last for 18 issues until Dec. 1880.
1882 In Pace vs. Alabama, the USA Supreme Court upholds a law that makes interracial adultery more serious than intra-racial adultery, arguing that interracial couples would produce genetically inferior offspring.
1882, Feb. 2 Birth of James Joyce, avant-garde novelist who made his lover, Nora Barnacle, into a dominant of whom he begged beatings and floggings "in earnest." We don't know if she said yes or no.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Sir Richard Burton and F.F. Arbuthnot translate the „Kama Sutra“ into English for the first time. One of the numerous translation mistakes is that strokes with the Samdanschikam-(„pincer“)-technique on the breasts are described as real strokes with iron pincers instead as a hand position derived from a dance.

CITE: „Die Liebeslehren des Kama Sutra“, Unipart Verlag Stuttgart 1996

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1885 The British Parliament at first tables the Criminal Law Amendment Act which made all acts of "gross indecency" between males, whether in public or private, an offense punishable by up to two years imprisonment. However a rally that the Purity Campaign organizes in Hyde Park attracts a crowd of thousands and on this wave of hysteria the law is rushed through parliament. It became known as "The Blackmailer's Charter" and was the law under which Oscar Wilde was later tried and convicted.
1885, Sept. 11 The Birth of D. H. Lawrence, a man who has come to be seen as the high-priest of heterosexual love. But it is know that at one time Lawrence had become so friendly with a handsome farm boy named William Henry that his wife Feieda adamantly refused ever to allow the young man to enter the Lawrence's house. Whatever his sexual proclivities were, his writing was the major concern of censorship in the US, and when the likes of Lady Chatterley's Lover were finally cleared by customs, the damn had really broken.
1886 In Washington DC, We'wha, a two-spirit leader and representative for the Native American Zuni tribe, is married to a man.
We-Wa, a Zuni berdache, full length portrait - NARA -523798 contrast clean CORRECTION: The original version of this timeline listed the date as the "1800's." Other sources dated the Washington visit as 1886.

ADDENDUM:We'wha was an Ihamana (i.e., "Two-Spirit," a Zuni mixed-gender role for cis-gen men who perform traditional social and ceremonial female roles.) The Zuni pronouns for Lhamana are neither male or female and might be best translated into English as "they" or "them."

In 1886, We'wha was part of the Zuni delegation to Washington, D.C. where US President Grover Cleveland received We'wha as a “Zuni Princess.” (Washington society generally assumed that We'wha was a woman in the binary sense.)

It's not clear from my cursory reading that We'wha married a man in their visit to Washington or elsewhere, but that's not so say that they did not marry. This calls for further research on my part.

IMAGE SOURCE: National Archives at College Park, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

SEE ALSO: Two-Spirits on worldhistory.biz 11-05-201

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1886 The Austrian police physician Richard von Krafft-Ebing publishes the first edition of his Psychopathia sexualis with 110 pages and 45 case histories. He creates the diagnosis of "paedophilia" and adopts "sadism" from earlier French usage. "Masochism" is not introduced until the sixth edition.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Krafft-Ebing publishes the first edition of „Psychopathia sexualis“ with a volume of 110 pages and 45 case studies. In the chapter „Parästhesie der Geschlechtsempfindung (Perversion des Geschlechtstriebs)“ (perversion of the sexual drive) on pp. 34-56, Krafft-Ebing discusses the heterosexual deviations from the norm. „As perverted has to be declared every expression of sexual drive that does not comply to the aims of nature, e.g. procreation.“ (p. 35) What he later refers to as „sadism“ and „masochism“ is described here as „1) murder for lust and related appearances, (lust, potentiated by cruelty, lust for murder up to anthropophagy“.

Von Krafft-Ebing does not offer a theory for the origins of those sexual deviations. „An ugly phenomenon „, he writes, „which we shall remind even here in the appendix, is the paedicatio mulierum, depending on circumstances uxorum (anal sex with women, depending on circumstances even with wifes, translation K.P.). Libertines perform it for titillation on inexpensive prostitutes or on their wives. (...) Sometimes the fear of further insemination can make the man pursue this action, and cause the wife to tolerate it!“ (p. 107)

CITE: von Krafft-Ebing, Richard: „Psychopathia Sexualis. Eine klinisch-forensische Studie“. 1. edn., Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart 1886

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1886, Feb. 22 The Birth of William Seaabrook (death Sept 20, 1945). This top-rated writer about exotic places (from personal experience) was equally famous among the literatti for his elaborate, long-term bondage of beautiful, young women.
1887 The state of Pennsylvania raises its age of consent from 10 to 16, after a campaign by the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the White Cross Society.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In his essay „Le Fetichisme dans l’amour“, the French psychologist Alfred Binet uses the expression „fetishism“ for the first time in its modern meaning.

The concept of erotic fetishism is taken up later by von Krafft-Ebing and others.

CITE: Steele, Valerie: „Fetish – Fashion, Sex and Power“. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1996 contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1888, Aug 15 The birth of Thomas Edward Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia, who was captured, caned and raped by Turkish soldiers, and who loved it so madly he hired Robert Bruce to flog him regularly after he returned to England.
1888, Aug 16 The birth of Edgar Montillion Wolley, better known as the American actor Monty Woolley. His taste was for black men, generally supplied by an assortment of New York pimps. He fell in love with one and they lived together for years as lovers.
1889 A male brothel is discovered at 19 Cleveland St. in London's West End. The Scandal becomes the talk of society and many important figures, including Prince Albert Victor, second in line to the throne, are rumored to be implicated.
1889, July 5 Birth of Jean Cocteau, French artist, writer and filmmaker. One of the many customs regarding polite Parisian pissour manners was known as the "privilege du cape." This allowed a Frenchman who could not find a convenient pissoir to approach a gendarme and ask him to extend his cape so that he could take a leak behind it. One of Cocteau's favorite amusements was to choose a handsome young cop and pretend that he was drunk. With luck he could get his trouser buttons undone by the helpful gendarme -- and possibly more. Uncooperative victims wound up with wet shoes.
1890's The "gay '90's" were the time Florenz Ziegfeld started the modern commercial exploitation of muscular males in vaudeville exhibitions of strength. He made the German strongman Eugen Sandow a household name as Sandow the Magnificent. Sandow often appeared wearing only a large fig leaf.
Sandow models the statue The Dying Gaul, illustrating his Grecian Ideal.
1891 Publication of A Problem in Modern Ethics by John Addington Symonds, it provides a systematic review of scholarly literature on Homosexuality.
1892 The New York Times becomes the first US newspaper to use the word "lesbian" in a news story: "Lesbian Love and Murder" about a suicide pact made by two young women after their parents forbid them to see each other.
1892, June 5 Birth of Ivy Compton-Burnett, British novelist whose work has been called "morality plays for the tough-minded," and who lived most of her life in total subservience to Margaret Jourdain, a scholar and expert in 18th Century furniture.
The Cover of Time Magazine for 20 July 1931 with Nicolas Telsa ADDENDUM: Nikola Tesla introduces the predecessor of the Violet Wand, the Violet Ray, as a medical device at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

IMAGE SOURCE: TIME Magazine cover, 20 July 1931. Public Domain,
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1893 Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing first uses the term "homosexual" and attributes it to an indelible personality trait, rather than to a sexual activity.
1893, Feb. 20 Birth of Bill Tilden, first American to win at Wimbledon (d. 1953). He was considered one of the greatest athletes of the 20th Century, but was snubbed by the tennis world when his Homosexuality became known.
1893, Oct. 30 Birth of bodybuilder Charles Atlas, who, though not gay, made a major contribution to the beauty of men.
1894 One of the earliest known gay organizations is formed by George Cecil Ives. The Order of Chaeronea took its name from the Greek battle of 338 BC at which the Sacred Band of Thebes was annihilated.
1894, Feb. 18 John Sholto Douglas, the 18th Marquis of Queensberry leaves a card at the Albermarle Club in London addressed "to Oscar Wilde posing as a sodomite" (sic) triggering the incident that was to bring about Wilde's downfall. The Marquis is better know among other circles as the compiler of the governing rules of the sport of boxing.
1894, June 7 The Blackmailers, a play by John Gray and his lover Andre Raffalovich, receives its one and only performance at the Prince of Whales Theatre.
1894, December
ADDENDUM: The poem "Two Loves" by Lord Alfred Douglas (Oscar Wide's lover) appears in the Oxford magazine The Chameleon in December 1894. The last line of the poem contains the phrase "the love that dare not speak its name." That phrase and its meaning are to figure prominently in the trail of Oscar Wilde in the following year.

"I am the Love that dare not speak its name." - Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas

I am the Love that dare not speak its name. - Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1895 Bom-Crioulo, The Black Man and The Cabin Boy by Adolfo Caninha published in Brazil.
1895, Jan. 1 Birth of J. Edgar Hoover, for many years head of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. He maintained secret surveillance files on individuals and organizations, including gay and other sexually identified ones. He was a homosexual and homophobe. (died: May 2, 1972)
1895 Oscar Wilde is convicted of committing "indecent acts" with young lower-class men and is condemned to two years of hard labor.
ADDENDUM: At the trial, Wilde was asked to explain the meaning of the phrase "the love that dare not speak its name." (It had appeared in Lord Alfred Douglas' poem "Two Loves" which was published in December 1894.) Wilde responded:

It is that deep spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It dictates and pervades great works of art, like those of Shakespeare and Michelangelo, and those two letters of mine, such as they are. It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as "the love that dares not speak its name," and on that account of it, I am placed where I am now. It is beautiful; it is fine; it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it. It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an elder and a younger man, when the elder man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him. That it should be so the world does not understand. The world mocks at it and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1895, Mar. 9 Official date of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch's death from heart failure as given by his family. This incorrect date is still found in a large number of texts. Actual date of death: 1905, see below.
1895, May 6 Valentio in chains Birth of Rudolfo Alfonzo Raffaelo Pierre Filbert Guglielmi di Balentina d'Antonguolla in Castellaneta, Italy. Better known as Rudolph Valentino, there is little argument that he enjoyed male to male sex, was dominated by his lesbian wife, and died because his macho image demanded that he fight in a boxing arena. But we love him best for the image of the captured Sheik hanging from un-stretched arms to that barred window, his chest bared, his body ready for whatever we desire.
1896 The English researcher Havelock Ellis starts work on his monumental book, Studies in the Psychology of Sex.
1897 Archaeologists working in Egypt find some of the lost poetry of Sappho on papyrus scrolls used to line ancient coffins and to stuff the carcasses of mummified animals.
1897, May 15 Magnus Hirschfeld and five friends found the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee in Charlottenburg, then a suburb of Berlin. Their goal was to abolish the anti-homosexual Paragraph 175 in German law. The committee dissolved on June 8, 1933 to avoid being banned by the Nazis. Paragraph 175 was still in force.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)": Magnus Hirschfeld establishes the „Wissenschaftlich-humanitäre Komitee“ (scientific-humanitarian committee) with the aim to support scientific research on sexuality.
  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Die Sexualität des Menschen“. 2. erweiterte edn., de Gruyter, Berlin 1985, p. 513
  • www.gaystation.de
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1897, May 19 Oscar Wilde is released from Prison in England.
1897, Nov. Publication of the first English edition of Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), the first book in English to treat Homosexuality as neither a disease nor a crime. (Born Feb 2, 1859)
1898, June 5 The birth of Federico Garcia Lorca, gay Spanish playwright who has the vicious Bernarda Alba, in the play with her name, shout out to the mob dragging away the adulteress, "Hot coals in the place where she sinned!"
1898, Sept 21 The birth in Moscow of artist Pavel Tchelitchew. His cubistic painting, Figures, depicts a rape with three male nudes.
1898 Der Eigene (The Exceptional) becomes the first gay publication destined to a long existence, until 1931! Edited by Berlin writer Adolf Brand who in 1903 founded the Community of the Exceptional, after Hirschfeld's, the second gay organization in Berlin.
1899 The Torture Garden, a novel by Octave Mirbeau published in France. First English edition in 1931. Research edition 1989.

The universe appears to me like an immense, inexorable torture-garden. Passions, greed, hatred, and lies; law, social institutions, justice, love, glory, heroism, and religion: these are its monstrous flowers and its hideous instruments of eternal human suffering.

~ Octave Mirbeau
The contemorary photograph of the author next to the preceding quote.
IMAGE SOURCE: Byron's Muse on wordpress.com: Torture Garden
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1899 Magnus Hirschfeld publishes the first issue of the Jahrbuch der sexuelle Zwischenstufen (Journal of Sexual Intermediates).
1899 Publication of A Marriage Below Zero, by Alfred J. Cohen, considered the first American novel in which Homosexuality is a central theme. Naturally the homosexual character commits suicide.
1900 - 1909 CE
Time Event
1901 The death in New York of Mary Anderson, who had lived as Murray Hall and had married two women.
An article from the Evening World on 18 Jan 1901 (Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers) features Murray Hall's story
He'd line up to the bar and take his whisky like any veteran, and didn't make faces over it, either. If he was a woman he ought to have been born a man, for he lived and looked like one. said one colleague to the New York Times.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1902 Richard von Krafft-Ebing dies in Graz, Austria at age 62 of multiple strokes.
1903, Sept 10 Birth of Ciril Connolly, English writer who was considered one of the "bright young men" of the 1920's. Chubby chasers should note that he wrote: "Imprisoned in every fat man a thin man is wildly signaling to be let out." OH YES!!
1903 The British physician Havelock Ellis publishes "Studies in the Psychology of Sex."
1903, October 27 In a letter of this date Sigmund Freud wrote, "homosexuals must not be treated as sick people..."
CORRECTION: The letter quoted here was published in Die Ziet in 1903. In earlier versions of this timeline, the date for this letter was given as April 9, 1935. That was actually the date for a private letter he wrote to an American mother who was concerned about her son's Homosexuality.

ADDENDUM: For a longer quote from the letter published in Die Ziet and for the text of the complete letter he sent to an American mother, visit A Brief History of Homosexuality and Sadomasochism in the DSM.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1904, Dec. 17 The birth, in New York City, of artist Paul Cadmus, who wonderfully portrayed lusty sailors, and had a painting destroyed by the Navy as being "inappropriate".
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In „Neue Forschungen über den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit“ (New research on the Marquis de Sade and his time), Iwan Bloch publishes – under the pseudonym Eugen Dühren – the manuscript of the „120 Days of Sodom“, which had been reported lost for a long time. Bloch had found and bought the manuscript at a French antique dealer.

CITE: Dühren, Eugen (d.i. Iwan Bloch): „Neue Forschungen über den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sexualphilosophie de Sade’s auf Grund des neu entdeckten Original-Manuskriptes seines Hauptwerkes „Die 120 Tage von Sodom“. Mit mehreren bisher unveröffentlichten Briefen und Fragmenten“. Max Harrwitz, Berlin 1904
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Freud publishes his „Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie“ (Three Essays on the Theory of Sex). In this work he describes the „normal“ development of human sexuality as well as the „perversions“, i.e., behaviors which do not correspond to the norm. His theory is based on the doctrine of psychoanalysis (i.e., examination of the mind or soul). According to Freud, the „sex drive“ undergoes a process of „maturation“ in which various „partial drives“ become subordinated to the goal of mature „genitality“. The three main phases of his process are: 1. Oral phase, 2. anal phase, 3. phallic phase. In late childhood there also is a „latency phase“ in which the sex drive lies dormant until it reawakens during puberty. Sadism and masochism are described as disorders that result from an incorrect development in the early childhood psyche.

Psychoanalysis becomes the dominant theory in Western psychiatry for the following 60 years. This is unfortunate as far as it concerns research on sadomasochism, as much of this research until the late 20th century is done by psychoanalysts who usually base their theories on the personal history of one or two patients instead of doing research on larger populations.

  • Freud, Sigmund: „Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie“. Deuticke, Leipzig u.a. 1905
  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992

In the Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, Freud adopted Krafft-Ebing's terminology for Masochism and Sadism. Freud believed an intrinsic connection existed between the two. In fact they were the active and passive aspects of the same perversion. Masochism was the passive aspect and common in women while sadism was the active aspect and common in men.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1905 The Memoirs of a Voluptuary, the Secret Life of an English Boarding School by Anonymous published in Britain. US edition in 1971.
1905 Leopold von Sacher-Masoch dies in an insane asylum in Mannheim, Germany.
1906 Maximilian Harden, publisher of Berlin's Die Zukunft, prints an editorial warning of the danger presented by the homosexual conspiracy.
1906 In Austria the first publication of Young Torless by Robert Musil (Eng. ed 1955) a novel depicting a sexually explosive hazing in an Austrian military school.
1905 The Austrian physician Sigmund Freud publishes his Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. Sadism and masochism are described as illnesses resulting from incomplete or faulty development of a child's personality. Psychoanalysis, a form of speculative philosophy with no empirical basis, becomes the dominating theory in psychiatry for the next 60 years.
1905, Mar. 2 Birth of Marc Blitzstein, American composer. He was murdered by a hustler in Fort-de-France, Martinique in 1968.
1907 A crowd of 2000 shows up for a debate about Germany's sodomy law, the notorious Paragraph 175, sponsored by the Scientific Humanitarian Committee.
1907 Release of film Love Microbe, the first in which sex is central to the plot. A scientist isolates the "germ" that causes people to get the hots for each other.
1907, Feb. 21 Birth of W. H. Auden, English poet. His poem "The Platonic Blow" was published in Fuck You: A Magazine of the Arts in 1965 without his permission. The poem was then issued in a Trade edition of 300 copies and a "Rough Trade" edition of 5 numbered copies each with "beautiful slurp drawings." The first two lines of the poem are, "It was a Spring day, a day for a lay, when the air / Smelled like a locker-room, a day to blow or get blown."
1907, Sept. 23 Birth of Anne Declos, aka Dominique Aury, aka Pauline Reage, the author of Historie d'O. (death: April 26 1998)
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)": The French author and translator Anne Declos (alias Pauline Réage, alias Dominique Aury), author of „The Story of O“, is born in Rochefort-sur-Mer.

  • Wetzstein, Thomas A. / Steinmetz, Linda / Reis, Christa / Eckert, Roland: „Sadomasochismus – Szenen und Rituale“. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993
  • „The Unmasking of O“, John De St. Jorre, The New Yorker, August 1, 1994
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1908 Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (born March 19, 1872; died 1929) meets Vaslav Nijinsky (born March 12, 1890). In their five years together Diaghilev totally dominates Nijinsky's life as he shapes him into one of the finest dancers the world has ever seen and creates a relationship (slave and Master?) that eventually results in Nijinsky's madness.
1908 Publication of The Intermediate Sex by Edward Carpenter in England.
1908 First publication of Physical Culture magazine, the first magazine to focus on the male physique with lots of articles about sex and photos of scantily clad men.
ADDENDUM: Freud introduced his theory of Penis Envy (Penisneid) in the 1908 article "On the Sexual Theories of Children." He postulates that during their psychosexual development, girls will experience anxiety upon realization that they do not have a penis.

contrib. Ambrosio March 1, 2023.
1908, Aug. 18 Birth of Sir Frances Rose, the last of Gertrude Stein's many artist proteges. In 1952 Alice B. Toklas reported that Rose was in trouble because of a Spanish gypsy boy he had found and hired as both valet and bed mate. After an incident involving a stolen bicycle Rose examined the boy's papers and discovered that he was his illegitimate son.
1909 Two black men are accused of oral sex with one another in Kentucky. They are not convicted because the judge couldn't find any law on the books under which to find them guilty. He urged that lawmakers remedy this problem, and soon many states had outlawed oral sex.
1909, April 23 In Woodside, OH, the birth of writer Samuel M. Steward, aka Phil Andros. As sex researcher Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey's major contact with the world of homosexual male SM he arranged and participated in scenes staged for Kinsey's cameras.
ADDENDUM: Samuel M. Steward recounts an encounter with Steve Masters in "Dr Kinsey Takes a Peek at S/M: A Reminiscence" in Thompson, Mark (editor). 1991. Leatherfolk -- Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice. 1st ed. Boston: Alyson Books.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1910 - 1919 CE
Time Event
1910 Among the Klementi tribe in Albania, if a virgin swore to twelve witnesses that she refused to ever marry, she would be allowed to live as a man carrying weapons and herding livestock.
ADDENDUM: The term is "sworn virgins." The Albanian word is burrnesha.

The ‘sworn virgins’ of Albania: Women who have lived their whole lives as men | ITV News
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1910 Magnus Hirschfeld creates the term "transvestite" and is the first to separate them from homosexuals.
1910 The Chicago Vice Commission reports the presence of whole "colonies" of sexual perversion, including a homosexual street gang, known as the Bluebirds, that frequented Grant Park.
1910, May 14 Alice B. Toklas and Gertrude Stein begin living together in Paris.
1910, Dec. 19 Birth in Paris of Jean Genet, his gay and SM themed works include The Balcony, Querelle du Brest, and Our Lady of the Flowers. (Death in 1986)
1911 A law is passed in the Netherlands prohibiting sexual contact between members of the same sex under the age of 21. The law sparked Dutch nobleman Jacob Schorer to form Nederlandsch Wetenschappelijk Humanitair Komitee, modeled after Hirschfeld's Scientific Humanitarian Committee in Germany. The NWHK provided support to homosexuals until 1940 when Schorer destroyed its records to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Nazis.
1912 The Scientific Humanitarian Committee polls candidates for the forthcoming Reichstagnelection to learn their view on gay issues. Ninety one out of the 96 who respond say that they favor gay rights!
1913 Alfred Redl, head of Austrian Intelligence, is exposed as a double agent working for the Russians. He commits suicide the next morning. Authorities who search his rooms find abundant indications that Redl had been a homosexual. The widely publicized case gives prominence to the idea that homosexuals are security risks, and 37 years later, US Senator Joseph McCarthy used the Redl case to raise similar fears.
1914 Publication of Dictionary of Criminal Slang which includes the first known printed definition of the word "faggot" as a term for "a male homosexual'.
1914 Magnus Hirschfeld publishes his 1067 page study on Homosexuality.
1915, May 25 Foreseeing a wartime shortage, Amy Lowell hoards 10,000 of her favorite Havana cigars in her home in Brookline, MA. (born Feb 9, 1874)
1916, Nov. 29 Birth of artist Neel Bate, as "Blade" one of the pioneers of gay erotica. His most famous work, an underground classic in pre-Stonewall days is The Barn, which he wrote and illustrated.
1916, Dec. 30 On this date Grigori Rasputin is murdered. The Russian monk, who was a famous sexual adventurer, spent some years initiating women into the reportedly Christian cult of flagellants before he settled into the court o Nicholas and Alexandria. There is no evidence that his position in the Russian court stopped or impeded his involvement with the female flagellants cult.
1917 The new revolutionary government of the Soviet Union abolishes the sodomy laws of the tsarist regime.
1917 The Bolshevik government in Russia says it will recognize only civil marriages.
1917, Nov. 20 T. E. Lawrence "of Arabia" (1888-1935) being held captive by the Turks at Deraa is caned and (probably) raped by Turkish army officers, an incident described in his 1926 book The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. His taste for the cane continued through life.
ADDENDUM: From the History of the Leather Bomber Jacket on AmericanMystique.com: According to The Black Leather Jacket, by Mick Farren, German fighter pilots were the first people to wear leather bomber jackets as a part of their military uniform. This layer of protective outerwear kept them warm in the cold cockpits of their planes.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1918 Publication of Life is Movement, the autobiography and manual of Hungarian born Eugen Sandow, who thrilled audiences in New York and London throughout the 1890's. Billed as 'The world's strongest man' he often appeared wearing only a metal fig leaf, held in place by a spring metal strap that was hidden in the cleft of his ass.
1919 Magnus Hirschfeld founds the Institute for Sexology in Berlin. The Institute combines the world's first sex counseling center, a museum, a library and an ongoing series of educational events.
1919, Jan. 7 Birth of Robert Duncan, a leading poet of the San Francisco renaissance. The first poet to use the word "cocksucker" in print and the first to strip to the buff during poetry readings.
1919, May 24 Release of Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others), one of the earliest films to offer viewers a gay-positive perspective. It costarred Konrad Veidt and Magnus Hirschfeld.
SOURCE: The UCLA Film & Television Archive channel on YouTube
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1920 - 1929 CE
Time Event
ADDENDUM: Sigmund Freud publishes his essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle. In it, Freud elaborates on sadism, masochism, and thantos (the death wish.)

He also references the passage in Plato's The Symposium in which Aristophanes explains how mankind originally consisted of three genders (i.e., male, female, and androgynous) and that humans are driven to reproduce in order to join together the sexes after Zeus had split them apart.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 12, 2022.
revised Feb. 27, 2023
1920, May 8 The birth in Finland of Touko Laaksonen, the erotic artist who would become known to leather men of the world as Tom of Finland. (Died 1992).
ADDENDUM: The Leather Report on Tom of Finland (7:25 Video)
from the Leather Archives & Museum
According to Leather Archives & Museum channel on Youtube:

Produced by Jim Pfanner & Bob Khoury in 1998. This program features Durk Dehner, President of the Tom of Finland Foundation talking about Tom, his art and the history of the Foundation.

BTW, the DVD for The Hidden Fuhrer: Hitler's Sexuality (a documentary exploring the possibility that Adoph Hitker was gay) contains an interview in the bonus section covering the influence of Nazi uniforms on the art of Tom of Finland. (During World War Two, Finland and Nazi Germany were allied against the Soviet Union.)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1921 The Theatre des Eros, the first theater devoted exclusively to gay plays, is founded in Berlin.
1921 Publication in France, of Sodome et Gomorrhe by Marcel Proust.
1921, March 29 The birth in London of actor Dirk Bogarde whose autobiography reveals an adolescent seduction by a man who first mummy wrapped him in bandages.
1921, Sept. 16 The First Congress for Sexual Reform opens at Berlin's Institute for Sexology.
1922 The Soviet Union re-introduces the concept of "crimes against nature" and begins the process (finalized by Stalin in 1933) of re-criminalizing homosexual acts.
1922 "Miss Furr and Miss Skeene" by Gertrude Stein is published in Vanity Fair. This is regarded as the first published fiction using the word "gay" to refer to Homosexuality.
1922 The God of Vengeance, a play by Sholom Asch featuring a lesbian relationship, is produced in Provincetown, MA. It is the first play on an American stage to depict gay or lesbian characters, and created an outcry the next year when it reached Broadway.
1922 A petition to abolish Paragraph 175, Germany's sodomy law, is presented to the Reichstag, but without success. The petition was largely the work of Magnus Hirschfeld and his Scientific Humanitarian Committee, and was signed by such prominent intellectuals as Albert Einstein, Herman Hesse, Thomas Mann, and Leo Tolstoy.
1922 Birth, in Hailey, Idaho, of Bob Mizer, creator of the Athletic Model Guild and Physique Pictorial. Died: May 19, 1992.
ADDENDUM: Publication of the first edition of Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics, and at Home by Emily Post. It becomes the definitive guide to etiquette among polite society in early 20th century America. Today, some authorities in the Leather community revere this edition as an essential authority on Leather protocol.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 12, 2022.
ADDENDUM: New York authorities arrested the producer and 12 member cast of an English language Broadway production of Sholem Asch's God of Vengeance (Got fun nekome) on obscenity charges. The play's offences included a romance between two women and the desecration of a Torah scroll. As a result of the conviction, the production closed.

CITE: Ted Merwin "An Obscenely Relevant Play," Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 17, 2016

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 17, 2023.
1924 The 17th edition of Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia sexualis is published. It will be translated into seven languages.
1924 In Virginia, "A bill to preserve the integrity of the white race" prohibits white marriage with any non-white. Richmond uses the law to segregate housing, prohibiting residence by any person who could not marry into a majority of families already on the block.
1924 Andre Gide, in If It Die, makes his Homosexuality public. He is the first prominent individual in modern times to do so.
1924, Apr. 3 Birth in Omaha, NB, of Marlon Brando, who's levis, tight t-shirt, and leather jacket created a look so many copied.
ADDENDUM: Psychoanalyst Marie Bonaparte, decided that the cause of her inability to experience orgasm was that her clitoris was too far away from her vagina to be stimulated during coitus. She wrote:

It then occurred to me that where, in certain women, this gap was excessive, and clitoral fixation obdurate, a clitoral-vaginal reconciliation might be effected by surgical means, which would then benefit the normal erotic function. Professor Halban, of Vienna, as much a biologist as surgeon, became interested in the problem and worked out a simple operative technique. In this, the suspensory ligament of the clitoris was severed and the clitoris secured to the underlying structures, thus fixing it in a lower position, with eventual reduction of the labia minora.

The results of the surgery were disappointing.

contrib. Ambrosio March 1, 2023.
1924, Apr. 15 Birth of Dr. Howard Brown, American public health administrator.
1924, Oct. 24 The New York Times reviews Dr. Joseph Collins' book The Doctor Looks at Love and Life in which Collins concluded that "the majority of homosexuals... are not degenerates." The review is the first time the word "homosexual" has appeared in this newspaper.
ADDENDUM: Chapter IV (Homosexuality) of The Doctor Looks at Love and Life reads in part:

It is impossible to make the average American believe that Homosexuality is not necessarily a vice, or that its possessor is not what is called a degenerate. It may be a vice and the posessor of it may be immoral or unmoral, but the majority of homosexuals, male and female, are not degenerates, to use that word in its colloquial sense. Genuine Homosexuality is not a vice, it is an endowment. Three human beings or thereabouts ; out of every hundred are bom that way. My experience does not agree with that of Forel and other European psychiatrists that homosexual love is pathological in nature and that all its victims are in a more or less marked degree psychopaths or neurotics. Forel’s opinion is a reflection of his enormous asylum experience. Mine is largely of private practice. I have known many well-balanced homosexuals of both sexes. Some of them have made distinctive positions for themselves in various fields of activity from arms to the pulpit. Strangely enough, they do not seem to go in for sculpture and painting as they do for teaching and writing. As a rule, they are persons of taste, refinement and sensibility. Many of them seek aid to be relieved of a burden which they find intolerable; if they attempt to deliver it in the way nature suggests to them, the State puts them into prison. It is not the fear of punishment that deters many of them; it is the unwillingness to accept abnormality.


It is unnecessary to say that their claim has no justification. They are not nature’s elect, but deviates who will one day diappear from the world when we shall have guessed the last riddle of the sympathetic nervous system and the ductless glands.


We are shorter of tolerance in this country than of any other virtue. I am by no means sanguine that the shortage will be overcome in our generation or that of our children. The truth is, it is a deficit rather than a shortage. We have always had it and by “we” I mean the majority who condemn and vote. We must foster our own tolerance through understanding which will give us a more enlightened viewpoint of the abnormality under discussion though it may not render the abnormal person, particularly in his arrogance, any more agreeable to us.


I have but small hope that I shall be able to convince the majority of my readers that umings are not monsters in human form whose salutations should be met with sneers and overtures to friendship with a kick; nevertheless, in view of the fact that my experience has taught me that they are not necessarily morbid or mad, and that many of them suffer through their sex-allotment, I construe it to be my duty to interpret them as it is society’s duty to understand them.

They are the most to be pitied of all of nature’s misfits. They live in a state of constant fear; fear that their secret will be guessed; fear that they will become the prey of blackmailers; fear that they will fall into the clutches of the law. They are constantly between the devil and the deep sea; tormented by desires that will neither be subdued nor sublimated and unable to obtain even vicarious appeasement. To get that for which their nature clamors they must, as a rule, go furtively beyond their own social and cultural circles, and they must forsake their souls for they put themselves into another’s power. Small wonder that many of them essay a certain speciousness to conceal their self-consciousness and feeling of guilt. Others, intolerant of their endowment and ever conscious of the conflict that it imposes, take their own lives. They merit our prayers. Only those who contend that it is a patency of distinction and a badge of cultural efficiency deserve our contempt. The individual who acquires Homosexuality should be dealt with either as a criminal or as an invalid, depending upon the state of his mental health.

CITE: Google Books: The Doctor Looks at Love and Life By Joseph Collins · 1926
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1924, Dec. 10 The Society for Human Rights, founded in Chicago by Henry Gerber (1892-1972), probably the first "gay lib" organization in the US, is granted a charter by the Illinois legislature. It lasted only a few months but during that time Gerber brought out two issues of the country's first gay liberation magazine, Friendship and Freedom. No copies of these are known to still exist.
Henry Gerber SEE ALSO:
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Blues singer Ma Rainey is arrested in her house in Harlem for having a lesbian party. Her protégé, Bessie Smith, bails her out of jail the following morning. Rainey and Smith were part of an extensive circle of lesbian and bisexual African-American women in Harlem.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1925, Jan. 14 The birth of Yukio Mishima. His erotic drive was always advanced by his fantasies of SM-drawn blood. His suicide (Nov. 25, 1970) blended his erotic fantasies, his political theories and his flair for public drama.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Mishima experienced his first orgasm at the age of 12, when he looked at a picture of St. Sebastian tied up and pierced by arrows. His fetishes were male underarm hair, sweat and white gloves. His biggest wish was to die a preferably bloody and painful death. In 1970, he sliced his stomach in the ancient ritual of Seppuku – or Harakiri – and was then decapitated by one of his followers, who committed suicide after that.

CITE: Wallace, Irving u.a.: „Rowohlts indiskrete Liste. Von Kleopatra bis Elvis Presley. Ehen, Verhältnisse, Amouren und Affären berühmter Frauen und Männer“, Rowohlt Verlag, Hamburg 1981
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1925, May 21 The birth of Dr. Franklin Kameny, founder of the Mattachine Society and spiritual godfather of all contemporary activists for sexual freedoms.
Frank Kameny picketing in a still from a documentary, The Lavender Scare. Photograph: PBS

Frank Kameny & the Necessity of Free Speech (VIDEO 2:20)
contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 3, 2023.
1925, Aug. 2 Birth of Roy Dean, photographer of the American Male in the all together, and often in nature as well. He is also the power behind Colt Studios and, as an artist, is known as both Colt, and in the pre frontal nudity days, as Lugar.
CORRECTION: According to Gary Ewer, the man behind both Luger and Colt wasn't Roy Dean, but was Jim French (photographer, July 14, 1932 – June 16, 2017) . Additionally, Luger was spelled with an "e" (not an "a.")

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1926 The German physician Albert Moll organizes the "1. International Conference on Sex Research" in Berlin.
1926, Feb. 15 Birth of British film director John Schlessinger, whose Midnight Cowboy (1969) was kicked to pieces by the critics for being too gay, and by militant gays for not being gay enough.
1926, May 30 Birth of George Jorgensen, who went to Denmark for surgery and became Christine Jorgensen, the world's best known transsexual.
1926, June 3 Birth of Beat poet Allen Ginsberg who horrified W. H. Auden by kneeling and kissing the older poet's trouser cuff.
1926, Oct. 15 Birth, in Poitiers, France, of philosopher and gay sadomasochist Paul-Michael Foucault. (d. 1984)
1928 D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover is published in France. Banned in Britain, it is only in 1960 that a British court declares the book to be art not porn.
An original perfecto jacket ADDENDUM: Manhattan raincoat maker Irving Schott makes the Perfecto, the first motorcycle jacket for Harley Davidson. Unlike the button up Aviator jackets before it, the Perfecto was shorter and closed by zipper.

CITE: "History of the Leather Bomber Jacket" on AmericanMystique.com

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1928 Publication of Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness. Calling for the merciful "toleration of inverts," it became the best known book in English with a lesbian theme.

You're neither unnatural, nor abominable, nor mad; you're as much a part of what people call nature as anyone else; only you're unexplained as yet -- you've not got your niche in creation.

~ Radclyffe Hall, The Well of Loneliness, 1928

"A great many women can feel and behave like men. Very few of them can behave like gentlemen." - Radclyffe Hall

A great many women can feel and behave like men. Very few of them can behave like gentlemen. ~ Radclyffe Hall
Image Source: AZ Quotes

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1928, March 18 Birth of American playwright Edward Albee. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? may or may not really be about a male couple, but is it an SM scene?
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The Reichstagsausschuß (Reichstag committee) sets up a draft for a change of the criminal laws – conducted by the „scientific-humanitarian committee“ around Magnus Hirschfeld – according to which the consensual homosexual act between two adult men should no longer be a crime. The communists should assure a small majority for the bill, but before the Reichstag could pass the bill, the New Yorker stock market crash causes the debate to be postponed indefinitely. Forty years go by until this reform is finally passed.

CITED by DACHS: Isherwood, Christopher „Christopher und die Seinen“, Bruno Gmünder Verlag 1972, p. 24f.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
Dusk jacket for the "Emotions of Normal People" ADDENDUM: The publication of the Emotions of Normal People by Dr. William Moulton Marston. In this book, he sought to divide human behavior into "Motivational impulses" --- four elementary behavior units: dominance, compliance, submission, and inducement. His theories were adapted by later psychologists into what is now know as the D.i.S.C. theory.

Marston would figure in the development of the lie detector. And in the 1940s he would co-create the superheroine Wonder Woman.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1929 The French judge Rene Guyon starts work in Thailand on his Studies in Sexual Ethics, claiming that an individual has a right to free sexual expression as long as the rights of others are not harmed.
ADDENDUM: The English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)": cites Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992 as the primary source for the corresponding entry.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1929, Jan 12 The publishers of Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness are served with a summons in an effort to censor the lesbian novel.
'A Book That Must Be Suppressed'. The Sunday Express editorial on Radclyffe Hall's The Well of Loneliness, 1928 © The National Archives, DPP 1/88

IMAGE SOURCE: Historic England
1929, Aug. 26 Birth in Chicago of Chuck Renslow, who with his partner Dom "Etienne" Orejudos, was to father Kris Studios, The Gold Coast, Man's Country, International Mr. Leather, and other enterprises. More Recently Chuck has been instrumental in founding The Leather Archives & Museum and the Chicago Eagle.
1929, Aug. 29 Birth of English born American poet Thom Gunn.
1930 - 1939 CE
Time Event
1930's Anthropologists report among the Nuer tribe in the Sudan there exist unions in which a woman marries another woman and counts as the father of her children.
1930 Denmark repeals its sodomy laws. It is the first European nation to respond to the early homophile movement. Poland, Switzerland, and Sweden all follow suit within fifteen years.
1930 Marlene Dietrich, in the film Morocco, makes the first of her many male impersonations.
1930 Publication of The Story of Punishment, Man's Inhumanity to Man by Harry Elmer Barnes. Revised edition 1972.
1931 The Chinese Nationalist Party forbids arranged marriages.
1931, Feb. 8 The birth, in Marion, Indiana, of James Dean. The mysterious masochist and cultural icon did nothing in his life to dispel the rumors of his masochism (preferring, it is said, to be burned with cigarettes and to be kicked and stepped on) and the rumors became legends after his death in a car crash on Sept. 30, 1955.
1932 The Zenith of gay activity in Berlin which then had over 300 homosexual bars and cafes, of which a tenth were lesbian. Between 1933 and 1945 virtually all homosexual activity was driven underground by the Nazis.
1932 First publication in Zurich of Der Kreis one of the longest running European gay magazines, it ceased publication in 1967. Articles were in German, English and French. It frequently published material by American writers, artists, and photographers, including the first fiction from Phil Andros, and nude male studies by George Platt Lynes under the pseudonym Robert Rolf.
1932, Dec 28 Birth of Manuel Puig, Argentinian novelist whose work includes The Kiss of the Spider Woman.
1933 Birth, in New South Wales, Australia, of artist Nigel Kent. When he started drawing and painting male SM imagery he signed his work "James D." but later began using his real name. He has lived in the Netherlands since 1973.
1933, Jan. 30 Hitler bans all gay publishing in Germany.
1933, May 6 In Berlin, Nazis ransack Magnus Hierschfeld's Institute for Sexual Research and, on May 11, burn his library and museum collection which, Christopher Isherwood reported, included many SM implements.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

A Nazi squad plunders Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) in Berlin. A part of the specialist library with 12.000 volumes is burned publicly on May 11, 1933 at the Opernplatz.

Among the institute’s exhibits there were „whips, chains and instruments of torture, which were meant for the practicing pain lover“. Although a part of the material was probably brought into safety before this, the library and the irreplaceable collections and archives of the institute have been declared lost after much research. Hirschfeld’s attempt to establish another, smaller institute in the Parisian exile fails.

  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992
  • Isherwood, Christopher „Christopher und die Seinen“, Bruno Gmünder Verlag 1972, p. 21f.) (me.in-berlin.de/~hirschfeld/wash_dt.html

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1933 Noel Ersine's Dictionary of Underworld Slang lists "gay cat" as meaning "a homosexual boy", this is the earliest know PRINTED equation of the words "gay" and "homosexual".
1933 In Germany Hitler rises to power. Within two years a license of "genetic cleanliness" is necessary for marriage and a German cannot marry a Jew.
1933 Department II of the German Gestapo is created for the express purpose of hunting down and imprisoning homosexuals.
1933, July 1 Birth of Domingo "Dom" Orejudos, better known as the erotic artists Etienne and Stephen, and as partner with Chuck Renslow in operation of Kris Studio, the Publication of Mars and Rawhide magazines, the Gold Coast leather bar and Man's Country baths in Chicago, and the founding of the International Mr. Leather contest.
1934, March 7 Stalin restores criminal sanctions against Homosexuality to the Soviet Union.
1934, March 10 The birth in El Paso, Texas, of author John Rechy, whose writing skirted the edges of leather sexuality, and about which he had strong opinions.
1934, June 30 Gay SS Chief Ernst Rohm, and many of his "Brown Shirts" were assassinated by rival Nazis with the approval of Hitler in the "Night of the Long Knives."
1934 Publication in England of The History of Torture in England by L. A. Parry.
1935, April 9
CORRECTION: In earlier versions of this timeline, the following letter was confused with a letter Freud sent to Die Zeit in which he wrote I am of the firm conviction that homosexuals must not be treated as sick people. That letter was published on October 27, 1903.

ADDENDUM: In a letter he composed on April 9, 1935 (but which was not published until 1951), Sigmund Freud replied to a concerned American mother about the topic of Homosexuality. For the entire text of the letter, visit Some Notes on Psychology, Homosexuality, and Sadomasochism.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1935, May 13 T. E. Lawrence "of Arabia" fatally injured in a mysterious motorcycle "accident" in England. Dies May 19, 1935.
1936 The American housewife Dorothy Spencer publicizes a scheme to improve marriage by mutual domestic spanking.
1936 Leftist German director Gustav von Wangenheim (1895-1975) produces the film Bortsy (The Fighters) which depicts the Nazis as homosexuals. In reaction the Hitler regime enacts a new and more stringent version of the notorious Paragraph 175, and increase convictions for homosexual activity in Germany.
1936 The suicide of Robert Ervin Howard, creator of Connan the Barbarian. Exceptionally close to his mother as a boy, and bullied by older boys he turned to exercise and developed the body he admired in other men. When his mother lapsed into a coma he blew out his own brains with a borrowed pistol and Cross Plains, Texas, had a double funeral. He was 30 years old and had written 21 Connan stories in which images of muscular men suffering under the domination of others was prominent.
Sada Abe shortly after her capture. ADDENDUM: In Japan, Sade Abe kills her lover by erotic asphyxiation and cuts off his penis and testicles -- which she kept with her while she wandered through Tokyo for three days. After her capture, she explained that she murdered him out of love and a desire to possess him totally and exclusively. The crime was a media sensation. There was a lot of sympathy for her, and she has since become a cultural icon of sorts.

The photograph shows her with police shortly after her capture.

Japanese filmakers have made at least three films about her:
  • A Woman Called Sada Abe (1975)
  • In the Realm of the Senses (1976)
  • Sada (1998)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1938 The American zoologist Alfred C. Kinsey begins his studies on human sexual behavior, using empirical data from over 12,000 interviews.
1938 Fourteen US states introduce bills to impose restrictions on marriage to persons with syphilis and other venereal diseases in a "social hygiene" panic.
ADDENDUM: In No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States, Allan M. Brandt writes by the end of 1938, twenty-six states had enacted provisions prohibiting the marriage of infected individuals.

In Taking the Venereal Out of Venereal Disease: The 1930s Public Health Campaign against Syphilis and Gonorrh, Erin Wuebker writes:

By 1944, thirty states had passed laws mandating pre-marital and pre-natal syphilis testing. As a result, the first mass blood testing Americans ever underwent was for syphilis as they applied for marriage licenses or prepared for the birth of a child.

There was not only a new openness about discussing VD control, but also changed attitudes specifically about the role of the state in developing a more robust public health program. Gallup Polls in the 1930s and 1940s revealed that large majorities of Americans (70-92%) were supportive of the premarital testing laws, government clinics and education, free testing for anyone regardless of income, and massive appropriations to make public health programs possible. In 1938, Congress unanimously passed the National Venereal Disease Control Act, appropriating up to $3,000,000 for anti-VD public health measures, increasing funding each year, no small feat during the Great Depression. By the 1940s, the federal government was spending over $10,000,000 each year on these efforts targeting civilians in addition to the money spent to educate, test, and treat servicemen. Many states matched or superseded federal funding to help develop their programs. With these appropriations, hundreds of clinics were opened, millions of free tests and treatment injections were provided to citizens, and educational efforts expanded.

SEE ALSO: Buckles, Kasey S., Guldi, Melanie, and Joseph Price. "Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements." NBER.org. National Bureau Of Economic Research, Accessed December 1, 2022. https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w15161/w15161.pdf.

IMAGE SOURCE: US Government Poster, 1940 (Image via American Social Health Association Records)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1938, March 17 Birth of Rudolf Nureyev, Russian, then American, Ballet dancer. Renowned for his love of rough trade a friend advised: "I once told Rudi, he can be as naughty as he likes, but if he isn't more careful, they're going to find him...some morning in an alley in Soho, his head laid open with a lorry driver's spanner." He died of AIDS in 1993.
1939 Albert Moll dies of natural causes in Berlin before the Nazis can transport him to a Death Camp.
1939 Cary Grant wearing a woman's night robe in a scene from the film "Bringing Up Baby." In the film Bringing up Baby, Cary Grant, appearing in a dress, exclaims that he has "gone gay". Historian John Boswell credits this as the first public use of the term in the US, outside of pornography and the homosexual community. But it isn't until the 1970's that "gay" is widely accepted as the standard, non slang synonym for homosexual, and not until 1987 that it is accepted by the New York Times.
1939, Jan. 10 Birth of actor Sal Mineo. He wore the leather jacket in Rebel Without a Cause even though he was the obvious and willing bottom to James Dean's reluctant Top. His grisly 1976 murder has never been solved.
1939, Feb 24 Birth of American playwright Doric Wilson.
1939, Sept. 22 Sigmund Freud, suffering from cancer in an advanced stage, dies in London by morphine overdose through physician assisted suicide.
1940 - 1949 CE
Time Event
1940, July 27 Birth of the Reverend Troy Perry, Minister, activist, leatherman, and founder of the Metropolitan Community Church. He devised a wonderful way to use the Gideon bible found in every hotel room as a ball weight.
1941 Wonder Woman teaching bondage saftey The first appearance of the cartoon character, Wonder Woman, an Amazon with special powers, living on an all-woman island. Her magical lasso rendered powerless anyone she placed in bondage.
1942, March 14 MP's raid a gay brothel near Brooklyn Navy Yard, among the clientele they find the US Senator who chairs the Naval Affairs Committee.
UPATE: The U.S. senator was David Ignatius Walsh from Massachusetts. He was gay, but the news story published by the New York Post claiming any involvement with the house was disproven by Hugh Ryan in the book When Brooklyn Was Queer in 2019.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 19, 2023.
1942, April 3 Birthdate of Anthony F. DeBlase, aka Fledermaus, leather/SM writer, editor, publisher, teacher, and creator of the Leather Pride Flag.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

DeBlase founds the BDSM magazine „SandMutopian Guardian“ and is the inventor of the leather pride flag. He cooperates with the Leather Archives & Museum in Chicago for a Leather History Timeline, one of the first chronicles of sadomasochism.

CITED by DACHS: Schlagworte, July 22, 2000

Anthony F. DeBlase would pass away on July 21, 2000

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1943, July 22 Birth of Robert Wiley Kirk, the erotic artist "Cirby" (died Dec 21, 1991)
1943 Jim Kepner is hoodwinked by a pen pal into joining the Sons of Hamidy, a wholly imaginary group of political and military leaders fighting for gay rights. Kepner quickly discovers the ruse, but is so involved with the idea he begins a campaign to collect books, papers, and other artifacts that grow into the International Gay and Lesbian Archives, now housed at the University of Southern California.
1944, June 10 Christa Winsloe, author of Madchen in Uniform and vocal anti-Nazi is murdered in Vichi France.
1945 Justice Weekly begins publication in Toronto. This little magazine excerpts news items related to punishment but it's highly coded personal ads are to real attraction to SM people all over North America.
1945 Bob Mizer founds the Athletic Model Guild in Los Angeles. His original intent is to serve as a middle man between hunky young males and the artists and others seeking their modeling (legitimate!) services. This aspect fails dismally so he begins marketing the photos directly to the public.
1945 Formation of the Veterans' Benevolent Association, the first gay membership organization in the US, formed to try to get homosexual soldiers some of the respect they deserved for the hardships they had endured.
1945, May 31 Birth of Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German film maker, author, director, & actor. His films often deal with same-sex relationships in which erotic desire becomes a function of the struggle for dominance of one partner over another. (died 1982)
1945, Aug. 7 Birth of Cynthia Ann-Slater, San Francisco Bay area SM activist and founder of The Society of Janus.
1945, Dec. 11 Birth of John Preston, author of Mr. Benson and many other notable volumes of leather fiction.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The first issue of the bondage magazine „Bizarre“, which is edited by John Willie, is published. It carries the issue number 2, the number of printed copies is approx. 5000, and it costs 25 US-Cents.

In 1939, Willie had the gally proof for issue number 1 already submitted to a London print office, where they were obviously lost during the war. For #2, he rebuilt the gally proofs from memory. In 26 volumes of Bizarre with in whole about 1.600 pages, figures like „Sweet Gwendoline“ come to existence until 1959, which have an important influence onto the later heterosexual subculture. The volumes include a large number of letters to the editor, in which themes like bondage, fetishism, and dominance/submission games are discussed. Issue 1 is published only in 1954, after issue 13.

  • „The Complete Reprint of John Willie´s Bizarre“, Taschen Verlag Cologne 1995, p. 10
  • Bienvenu II, Robert V.: „The Development of Sadomasochism as a Cultural Style in the Twentieth-Century United States“. Dissertation, Indiana University 1998, www.americanfetish.net, p. 95ff. and passim
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1946 A gay social club "The Shakespeare Club" is founded in Amsterdam. (Name change to Centre for Culture & Leisure, in 1949) Dance nights become extremely well attended and to accommodate the crowds, a large commercial dance hall, Der Oden Kring (DOK) is opened in 1955. From this basis Amsterdam has become the gay mecca of Europe.
1946 Bob Mizer takes his first photos for the Athletic Model Guild. The subject is 22 year old Howard Olson who had just been discharged from the US Marine Corps. Olson wears only a posing strap and is caught spread-eagled in the air in the middle of a jump.
1946, Sept. 26 Birth of Andrea Dworkin, American writer and feminist. And ardent crusader against pornography, SM and other sexual "evils".
1946, Dec. 29 Birth of William Carney, author of one of the earliest explicitly gay male SM novels, The Real Thing.
1947 Alfred C. Kinsey founds the "Institute for Sex Research" at Indiana University.
1947 California strikes down its anti-miscegenation law.
1947, Mid Bob Mizer is arrested and charged with disseminating obscene material. He refuses consul's advice and pleads "not guilty". He is convicted and serves six months in a California Prison. Upon release he resumes business exactly as before. In 1953 his appeal reaches the US Supreme Court, where his conviction is overturned because the judge erred in instructing the jury on the legal definition of "obscene."
1947, July 4 - 6 More than 4000 motorcycles converge on Hollister California and their riders unleash 40 hours of drunken terror on the town. 40 CHiPs threaten to use tear gas. Nearly 100 bikers are jailed.
ADDENDUM: The "Hollister Riot" (as it became known) was covered in the July 21st 1947 issue of LIFE Magazine which popularized the image of the "Outlaw Biker" and became the inspiration for the film The Wild One.

Eddie Davenport on a motorcycle, with August 'Gus' Deserpa standing behind, in Hollister, California on July 7, 1947, by photographer Barney Petersen of the San Francisco Chronicle

This photograph is Eddie Davenport on a motorcycle, with August 'Gus' Deserpa standing behind, in Hollister, California on July 7, 1947, by photographer Barney Petersen of the San Francisco Chronicle. (The scene might have been staged for the camera.)


contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1948 Axel and Eigil Axgil, a male couple, found the National Homosexual Association, the first gay rights Organization in Denmark. On Oct. 1, 1989 they are the first to marry under Denmark's same sex marriage registry.
1948 Alfred C. Kinsey publishes the first part of his study on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.
ADDENDUM: One of the report's findings is that among men "only 50 percent of the adult population is exclusively heterosexual throughout its adult life." Other finding include 12 percent of female and 22 percent of male respondents experience erotic responses to sadomasochistic stories. Also 55 percent of females and 50 percent of males responded sexually to being bitten.

CITE: Kinsey, Alfred C., Pomeroy, Wardell B., and Clyde E. Martin. 1948. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. 1st ed. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. p. 656. ISBN 978-0-253-01923-3. OCLC 606987885.

contrib. Ambrosio Dec. 31, 2022.
ADDENDUM: Dr. Charles Mayo Goss, one of the editors of Gray's Anatomy choose to erase the clitoris from an illustration in the 25th edition of that book. Apparently no one noticed or complained.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 10. 2023.
1948, March 3 Birth of Albert Andrew Kraus Jr. Later to be a founder of the Windy City Bondage Club, and a co-chair of NLA: I during a critical period of it's redevelopment,
1948, March 9 The Veteran's Benevolent Association, the first postwar American homosexual organization, is incorporated in New York state.
1948, March 20 Inspector Craig Ellis, head of the vice squad of Philadelphia Police Dept. gives his men a list of books he considers obscene and orders that the city's bookstores be raided immediately and all titles on the list be confiscated. No search warrants or court orders of any kind are issued. 54 booksellers are raided and nearly 1200 books seized, including works by James Farrell, William Faulkner, Erskine Caldwell, and Harold Robbins. The district attorney brings suit against five of the booksellers. But Judge Curtis Bok rules in favor of the booksellers and freedom of the press.
1948, October 1
Jealous secretary pays to be spanked. ADDENDUM: In story "Between Two Worlds" in the comic book, Venus Number 2, a jealous secretary pays two men $100 to spank her after the failure of her unscrupulous plan to ruin her boss's romantic interest in the comic book's titular character.

Stan Lee is the editor for Venus, but it's not clear whether he is the author as well. The artist (pencils and inks) is George Klein.

contrib. Ambrosio Dec. 2022.
1949 Sam Steward and Steve Masters meet in Alfred Kinsey's garden. The two, who would each later be leather icons in their own right, perform SM scenes for Kinsey's research.
ADDENDUM: Samuel M. Steward recounts this in "Dr Kinsey Takes a Peek at S/M: A Reminiscence" in Thompson, Mark (editor). 1991. Leatherfolk -- Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice. 1st ed. Boston: Alyson Books. pp. 81–90.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1949 The Thief's Journal by Jean Genet is first published in France. English edition 1964.
1949 South Africa passes a law prohibiting interracial marriage.
1950 - 1959 CE
Time Event
1950's Mississippi makes publication of "general information, arguments, or suggestions in favor of social equality or intermarriage between whites and Negros" a crime.
1950 After a year of revolution in China a marriage law sets age limits and allows widows to remarry. Prospective marriage partners must be checked for "correct" thinking with the party.
1950 Publication of
  • The Invisible Glass by Loren Wahl
  • Quatrefoil by James Barr
1950, June 15 Chuck Renslow and Dom Orejudos start Kris Studios to publish male physique photography. Orejudos begins sketching some of the models.
1950, Nov. The first issue of AMG's Physique Pictorial is issued. Cover "Havasu Creek" by Quaintance. No copies of this issue are known to exist.
"Havasu Creek" by Quaintance
1950, Dec. Mattachine Society founded in Los Angeles.
1951 (or by 53) Shaw's, New York City's first Leather Bar opens.
1951 Rene Guyon critizises the United Nations for not including sexual rights as a basic human right.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)": This right is still not included in the Human Rights Declaration of the UNO (as of 2001).
CITED by DACHS: Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992
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1951 Clellan S. Ford and Frank A. Beach publish their study Patterns of Sexual Behaviour, a comparison of the sexual preferences of 200 cultures. The study shows how relative Western sexual traditions are.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In 1968, the American psycho-biologists Clellan S. Ford and Frank A. Beach publish „Patterns of Sexual Behavior“. The German edition is published in 1968 at Rowohlt in the series „rororo sexologie“, which was edited by Hans Giese, as „Formen der Sexualität. Das Sexualverhalten bei Mensch und Tier“. The authors compare the sexual behavior of 190 different societies and of animals to find out which kinds of human sexual behavior are the result of collective learning, and which are the result of biological dispositions. The chapter „Schmerzhafte sexuelle Stimulation“ (Painful sexual stimulation) holds some interesting theories about sadomasochism, which were barely pursued since then.

  • Ford, Clellan S. / Beach, Frank A.: „Patterns of Sexual Behavior“. Harper & Brothers, New York 1951
  • Ford, Clellan S. / Beach, Frank A.: „Das Sexualverhalten von Mensch und Tier“. Kraemer & Hansen GmbH, Osnabrück 1954
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1951, April Harry Hay (born Apr. 7, 1912), Rudi Gernreich, Chuck Rowland, Bob Hull and Dale Jennings start The Mattachine Society in Los Angeles.
1951, May 26 British Foreign Office officials Donald Mclean and his cruel "master" Guy Burgess defect to the USSR.
1951, Nov. The cover date of the oldest known extant copy of Physique Pictorial Vol.1, No. 2. Cover painting of a nude man riding a white horse through the surf: "Dashing" by Quaintance.
Dashing by Quaintance
1952 (or by 54) The Lodge, New York City's second leather bar opens.
1952 Jack's on the Waterfront opens at 111 Embarcadero in San Francisco. The bar particularly attracts longshoremen, motorcycle men other butch types. Gradually evolves from a straight bar with "homo space" to a gay bar with a maritime flavor. Closed in 1962 as part of the "gayola" scandals.
1952 Joe Wieder, a championship competitive bodybuilder who had started a series of body building magazines converts his American Manhood to compete with the "informal" poses and slimmer "natural" physiques of magazines like Physique Pictorial and Vim.
1952 First publication of Tomorrow's Man. A tiny physique magazine Published by Irv Johnson in Chicago, which combined the look of Physique Pictorial with articles on body building and staying in shape. It quickly became the #1 physique publication.
1952 Alan Turing, mathematical genius, breaker of Nazi codes, acclaimed as "the man who saved England" reports the theft of his property by a hustler, when the police realize why the thief was there Turing himself is arrested and prosecuted. He is chemically castrated by the authorities and hounded by the press. He commits suicide in 1954.

contrib. Zeitgeist46 Feb. 18, 2023.
1952, April Dale Jennings, a member of the Mattachine Society in Los Angeles is arrested by the police. Mattachine organizes The Committee to Outlaw Entrapment.
1952, May 27 Birth of Sasha Alyson, founder of Alyson Publications, a gay press that gave presence to a broad range of gay and lesbian works, including Coming to Power, the writings of John Preston, and many other leather/SM works considered "marginal" at the time, by other publishers.
1952, August Cover date of Physique Pictorial issue bearing a cover painting by Quaintance, "Sacrifice," depicting a nearly naked man chained in spread-eagle suspension to a vertical sun disk. In the foreground two virtually naked warriors lie bleeding (dying) from arrows penetrating their backs. This cover resulted in censorship in Los Angeles county. No one objected to the bondage, blood, or violent theme. They wanted the lushly rounded asses of the dying warriors covered!
Aztex Sacrifice
1952 College English professor Sam Steward begins a sideline business as Phil Sparrow, tattoo artist.
1953 Alfred C. Kinsey publishes the second part of his study on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.
1953 The German physician Harry Benjamin coins the term "transsexuals" and is the first to distinguish them from transvestites.
ADDENDUM: Harry Benjamin defined transvestites as heterosexual men who derived sexual pleasure from dressing in women’s clothing but who did not wish to become women.

He was born in Berlin, Germany in January 12, 1885. He earned a medical degree in 1912 from the University of Tübingen. He moved to New York in 1913. In 1966, he wrote The Transexual Phenomenon in which he states:

Intersexes exist, in body as well as in mind. I have seen too many transsexual patients to let their picture and their suffering be obscured by uninformed albeit honest opposition. Furthermore, I felt that after fifty years in the practice of medicine, and in the evening of life, I need not be too concerned with a disapproval that touches much more on morals than on science.

Also in 1966, he helped open the first sex reassignment clinic in the United States at Johns Hopkins University.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 20, 2023.
1953, Apr. 23 US President Eisenhower issues orders prohibiting employment of gays in government agencies.
ADDENDUM: It is Executive Order 10450.

In TIME magazine, Omar G. Encarnación writes:

LGBTQ Americans are still waiting for an acknowledgement from the Lavender Scare, a mid-century witch hunt of federal workers suspected of being homosexual triggered by President Dwight Eisenhower’s 1953 Executive Order 10450 banning “perverts” from working in the federal employment. It resulted in thousands of homosexuals or suspected homosexuals losing their careers in the federal government, with some confined to mental institutions, especially Washington DC’s St. Elizabeths Hospital, to undergo traumatic treatments such as lobotomies to eradicate same-sex attraction.

CITE: Encarnación, Omar G. "Florida's 'Don't Say Gay' Bill Is Part of the State's Long, Shameful History." Time (New York City), May 12, 2022. https://time.com/6176224/florida-dont-say-gay-history-lgbtq-rights/.

The Lavender Scare | The History You Didn't Learn | TIME (VIDEO 9:50)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1953 Forbidden Colors, Yukio Mishima's novel with SM overtones is first published in Japan. First English edition in 1968.
1953, Aug. Tomorrow's Man #8 contains the first published art by Dom Orejudos and the pseudonym Etienne is created.
1954 Satyrs MC founded in Los Angeles, the first gay motorcycle club.
1954 Historie d'O by Pauline Reage (real name, Anne Declos) first published in France. In 1955 it won the Deux-Magots prize, an important French literary award. In 1965 Grove Press publishes the first English language edition as The Story of O.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Under the pseudonym Pauline Réage, the „Story of O“ is published in France by Jean-Jacques Pauvert in a run of 600 exemplars, some of them with a small lithography of the Austrian Hans Bellmer at the front page.

In 1955, the book wins the French literary award Deux Magots. The „Story of O“ becomes one of the vital impacts on heterosexual and lesbian subcultures in all Western countries. The German edition is indexed various times by the BPjS between 1967 and 1982. In Great Britain, a legal edition is in trade since 1970.

  • Réage, Pauline: „Histoire d’O“. Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Sceaux 1954
  • Wetzstein, Thomas A. / Steinmetz, Linda / Reis, Christa / Eckert, Roland: „Sadomasochismus – Szenen und Rituale“. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1993
  • homepages.wyenet.co.uk/sprince/corridors.html
  • für jugendgefährdende Schriften, Bundesprüfstelle (Ed.): „Gesamtverzeichnis indizierter Bücher, Taschenbücher, Broschüren und Comics“ 1993, p. 31

Story of O is a fairy tale for another world, a world where some part of me lived for a long time, a world that no longer exists except between the covers of a book. ~ Anne Desclos
Story of O is a fairy tale for another world, a world where some part of me lived for a long time, a world that no longer exists except between the covers of a book. - Anne Desclos

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1954 Birth of Bob Flannigan, SM performance artist and "Super-masochist"
1954 The San Francisco police stage a crackdown on "Sex Deviates" hitting particularly the area of Market and Embarcadero streets.
1954 Joe Wiedner begins publication of Body Beautiful and Adonis, big budget, color cover, physique magazines which alternate publication in succeeding months. The rise of physique magazines threw the body building publishing world into a homophobic panic, except for Wiedner who jumped in and competed.
1954 On the urging of Jim Kepner and Ann Carrl Reid, Chuck Rowland starts the Church of ONE Brotherhood to minister to the religious needs of gays and lesbians. It prospers for about a year, then folds.
1954 The movie The Wild One starring Marlon Brando as a leather jacketed motorcycle gang member is released, creating a sensation and giving seed to an image.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In the movie „The Wild One“, actor Marlon Brando wears a black leather jacket and thus becomes the archetype of the maladjusted motorbike rocker.

The movie is forbidden in Great Britain until 1967. In its wake, black leather becomes the symbol for rebellion and being an outsider in the whole cultural sphere of influence of the USA. From the motorbike outfits of the Old Guard, the connection between black leather and sadomasochism evolves.

CITED by DACHS: Farren, Mick „The black leather jacket“ Abbeville Press New York 1985

SEE ALSO: Old Guard? If You Say So by Joseph W. Bean for a more in depth look at the film's significance to Leather culture.

Marlon Brando in a Perfecto Motorcylce jacket from the film "The Wild One"

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
First UK Printing of Seduction of the Innocent ADDENDUM: Rinehart & Company, Inc. publishes Seduction of the Innocent, a book by German-born American psychiatrist Fredric Wertham. It is a critique of the comic book industry and its alleged negative effects on children. Wertham argued that comic books, particularly those featuring crime and horror themes, were responsible for juvenile delinquency and indoctrinated children into sadism, fascism, and homosexuality. After the publication of the book, Wertham appeared before the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency chaired by Senator Estes Kefauver. The hearing was broadcast on television and received media attention. In the months following, 15 comic book publishers went out of business and the industry adopted the Comics Code Authority, a self-regulatory organization widely blamed for a period of creative stagnation for the industry.

SEE ALSO: Dr. Fedric Wertham and the "Seduction of the Innocent"

contrib. Ambrosio April 23, 2023.
1954, Feb. One magazine includes its first article about a women's issue. Lesbians continued to be included in the content, and on the staff, until 1959.
1954, June Suicide of Alan Turing in England, after being outed as a homosexual when he reported the theft of some items by a young man he had invited into his home. Turning had been instrumental in breaking Nazi codes during the war, and is considered the father of the computer.
1955 Publication of
  • Cool Hand Luke by Donn Pearce, the novel which inspired Paul Neuman's superb movie performance as a member of a southern prison camp chain gang.
  • Two by Eric Jourdan in France. This novel of male love with definite SM elements was published in English in 1963.
1955, Sept. 21 The Daughters of Bilitis, the first Lesbian organization in America, is formed in San Francisco.
1955, Sept. 30 James Dean is killed in a car crash in California. The actor's smoldering sexuality and young death (at 24) elevated him to legendary status. The persistent rumors that he enjoyed being burned with cigarettes and kicked and trampled under men's feet provided hours of pleasant fantasy for many Tops.
James Dean in a black leather motor cycle jacket ADDENDUM: Bad boy film star James Dean appears in a black leather motorcycle jacket in the film Rebel Without a Cause (1955.)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1955, Nov. 1 An anti-homosexual witch hunt begins in Boise, ID, later documented by John Gerassi in The Boys of Boise.
1956 The last of the US laws making epilepsy a disqualification for marriage are removed.
1956 Publication of
  • The Street of the Sun by Lance Horner, the most homoerotic and SM, of the Mandango family of novels.
  • Sex Magick by Ian Young. Poetry from one of Canada's best known leathermen. (born Jan 5, 1945)
  • The Street of the Sun by Lance Horner, the most homoerotic and SM, of the Mandango family of novels.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Under the pseudonym Jean de Berg, Jeanne de Berg publishes the sadomasochistic novel „The Picture“ (L’Image), which was dedicated to Pauline Réage.

For a long time, her husband Alain Robbe-Grillet is thought to be the author.

CITED by DACHS: Süddeutsche Zeitung, April 29, 1995

Both Jean de Berg and Jeanne de Berg are pseudonyms for Catherine Robbe-Grillet. She is married to the novelist Alain Robbe-Grillet (August 18, 1922 - February 18, 2008.)

L’Image was adapted as a motion picture in 1975.

Catherine Robbe-Grillet would become the subject of two short films, The Contract (Kontraktet) and The Five Senses, in 2010 and a longer documentary, The Ceremony (La cérémonie), in 2014.

She wrote the screenplay for the short film Diner Noir Istanbul released in 2015.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1956, Sept. Jim Kepner and Dorr started America's first gay studies classes. In Jan 1957 they started the first 36 week course in World History from the gay perspective. Kepner conceived and edited Americas first gay scholarly-style journal: ONE Institute Quarterly of Homophile Studies for three years.
1957 The German physician Hans Lehfeldt founds the "Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality" (SSSS) in New York.
1957 Amsterdam's first leather bar and hotel, The Argos, opens. It is still in business!
1957 The Spring issue of Physique Pictorial magazine includes the first published erotic art of Tom of Finland, and marks the first time that name is used.
1957 Erotic artist George Quaintance dies.
1957 Publication of
  • Color of Darkness, a novel by James Purdy (born July 14, 1923).
  • The Last Exit to Brooklyn, a novel by Hubert Selby Jr. (born July 23, 1928)
1957 In the Crittenden Report, the US Navy concludes that homosexuals serving in the military do not create a security risk. The Pentagon denies the existence of this report for twenty years.
ADDENDUM: The official title was the Report of the board appointed to prepare and submit recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy for the revision of policies, procedures, and directives dealing with homosexuals The board was chaired by Navy Captain S.H. Crittenden, Jr.

  • "History Repeating Itself: A Historical Overview of Gay Men and Lesbians in the Military before 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'," by Timothy Haggerty, in Belkin, Aaron, and Geoffrey Bateman, eds. 2003. Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Debating the Gay Ban in the Military. 1st ed. Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner.
  • Bérubé, Allan. 1990. Coming Out under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. 1st ed. New York City: Free Press.
  • Gibson, E. Lawrence. 1978. Get Off My Ship: Ensign Berg Vs. the U.S. Navy. 1st ed. New York City: Avon.
  • Johnson, David K, 2006 The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Terry, Jennifer. 1999. An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. 1st ed. Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press.
  • Report of the board appointed to prepare and submit recommendations to the Secretary of the Navy for the revision of policies, procedures, and directives dealing with homosexuals by , United States

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 20, 2023.
ADDENDUM: Dr. Evelyn Hooker published the results of her study comparing the happiness and well-adjusted nature of 30 self-identified homosexual men with 30 heterosexual men. Her results suggested that homosexuals and heterosexual were equally psychologically normal.

CITE: Hooker, E. (1957). "The adjustment of the male overt homosexual". Journal of Projective Techniques, 21, 18-31.

  • Wyatt-Nichol, Heather. "Sexual Orientation And Mental Health: Incremental Progression Or Radical Change?" Journal of Health and Human Services Administration. 37, no. 2 (Fall 2014) (2014): 225-241. (17 pages)
  • Being Gay Is Just as Healthy as Being Straight. APA.Org. American Psychological Association, May 28, 2003. https://www.apa.org/research/action/gay
  • Bohan, J. S. 1996. Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms. 1st ed. New York: Routledge.

contrib. Ambrosio Dec. 31, 2022.
1957, Sept. 4 In London, the Wolfenden Report recommends decriminalization of "private homosexual acts between consenting adults".
SEE ALSO: The report was covered (in passing) in at least two magazine articles over the next decade.
contrib. Ambrosio November 6, 2023.
1958 Both Federal and Chicago authorities charge Kris studios with censorship violations. Renslow fights back, surprising the prosecution. His defense uses the simple stand that nudity is not obscene. In support his attorney shows photos of nude male sculpture in the courthouse where the case is being held. Kris was found not guilty, prosecution appealed and eventually the same decision came from the US Supreme court.
1958 Publication of
  • The Question by Henri Alleg, an account of the French Algerian newspaper man's torture at the hands of French paratroopers.
  • Those about to Die, a history of the Roman games and arena shows by Daniel P. Manix.
  • The Balcony, Jean Genet's play which accommodates every sexual desire, is published in French and English.
  • Muscle Boy, by Bud Clifton
  • Confessions of a Mask, an autobiographical novel by Yukio Mishima first published in English.
1958 to 1966
Four comic panels drawn by Eric Stanton and clearly inked by Steve Ditko ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)": Eric Stanton shares a studio with the Spiderman painter Steve Ditko. Stanton’s S&M paintings are hand-colored by Ditko.(1)

(The words "painter," "paintings, and "hand-colored" are likely mistranslations. The authors of Datenschlag probably meant that Stanton's pencils were inked by Ditko.)

It's been widely accepted by comic book aficionados that Steve Ditko contributed to many of the drawings credited to Eric Stanton (presumably by inking Stanton's pencils.) Ditko's distinctive style is immediately recognizable and impossible to miss.

(The first time I saw a reprint of a Stanton comic, I assumed the artist was Steve Ditko moonlighting under a pseudonym. I thought so for several years before learning Eric Stanton was a real person.)

Stanton confirmed in interviews that Ditko contributed to his "Stantoons."

We put in lots of hours. There were times he would spend twenty hours straight doing a comic. Neither of us were making much money. Ditko would ink for me. He inked "Confidential T.V." for me. I like to draw. I'm too impatient to ink. He was a better inker so I let him ink. He thought my stuff was funny. We'd laugh a lot.(2)

Drawing by Eric Stanton, Steve Ditko, or both Ditko admitted in general to assisting colleagues with their deadlines. But when asked by fans and fellow artists about contributing specifically to the bondage themed cartoons, he never confirmed it.(3) He would either deny it outright when asked or insist that it couldn't be proven when confronted.(4)

Ditko's reluctance to admit to his contributions might have less to do with prudism than his embrace of Ayn Rand's Objectivist philosophy.

On the other hand, Stanton was more forthcoming about helping Ditko. In a 1988 interview, Stanton was asked whether he contributed to the creation of Spider-Man. He replied:

My contribution [to] Spider-Man was almost nil. When we worked on storyboards together, I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own. The whole thing was Steve Ditko. I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands, and we talked about the characters, and in turn, he helped me with my stuff.(5)

FOOTNOTES  comic panel "Confidential T.V."
  1. „Eric Stanton Taschen Diary 2000“, Benedikt Taschen Verlag, Cologne, 1999 (as cited in Datenschlag)
  2. The Art of Eric Stanton: For the Man Who Knows His Place by Eric Stanton, Erik Kroll (ed.) Taschen, 1997
  3. "Comic Books, Kinky Books: Five Faces of Steve Ditko" (Introduction) by Blake Bell in Dripping With Fear: The Steve Ditko Archives Volume 5 edited by Blake Bell. Fantagraphics (January 1, 2015) ASIN: B019TMJFIW
  4. Joe Rubenstein. Interview with Blake Bell. 2007 (as cited in "Comic Books, Kinky Books: Five Faces of Steve Ditko" in Dripping with Fear)
  5. Eric Stanton. Interview with Greg Theakston. 1988 (as cited in The Steve Ditko Reader Vol. 1, 2002.)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1958 Oedipus MC founded in Los Angeles, the second gay motorcycle club.
1958, May 12 The Homosexual Law Reform Society is founded in London.
1958, June Chuck Renslow becomes manager of The Gold Coast in Chicago and creates the first Leather Bar.
1959 The Big Dollar at 34th & 3rd in New York City opens, A VERY leather bar.
1959 The Spur Club a leather friendly bar at 126 Turk in San Francisco's tenderloin is raided and closed.
1959 In the San Francisco mayoral election Homosexuality becomes a political issue. The incumbent clamps down on "queers".
1959 Publication of Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs. (born Feb. 5, 1914)
1959 US Supreme Court rules in favor of allowing distribution of D. H. Lawrence's novel, Lady Chatterley's Lover.
1959 Kellers (bar) opens in New York City and becomes a gathering place for gay motorcycle riders.
1960 - 1969 CE
Time Event
1960, March 16 The Gold Coast, Chicago's first leather bar, (opened June 1958) is purchased by Chuck Renslow and Associates.
1960 The Why Not (518 Ellis St.) in the Tenderloin is San Francisco's first leather bar. The owners hire Tony Taverossi to create an atmosphere that will attract the leather crowd. The bar closes shortly after opening when Tony propositions a vice squad cop.
1960, Spring Owners of San Francisco gay bars revolt against police pay-offs and the "Gayola Scandals" result. Police retaliate with a vengeance and close most Gay bars in the city.
1960 Publication of Christ and The Homosexual by Robert Wood, which includes a rather accurate description of one of the many SM parties hosted by Bob Milne at his home in NYC in the early 1950's.
1960 A British court rules that D. H. Lawrence's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover, is art not porn.
1960 Warlocks MC, and California Motor Club formed in southern California and San Francisco respectively.
1960 DL Sterling, "The Leathermaker", makes his first pair of motorcycle chaps.
1961 Michael Foucault publishes Folie et deraison (Madness and Civilization) by Michael Foucault, claiming that the role of psychiatry in modern society is to remove people who refuse to conform to it's norms. A shortened English version is published in 1965.
1961 The Hideaway, a leather friendly bar at 438 Eddy in San Francisco's tenderloin raided and closed.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In Great Britain, the spy series „The Avengers“ starts, in which at first Honor Blackman, then Diana Rigg, and finally Linda Thorson play the role of the leather-clad agent Mrs. Emma Peel. The first design draft, a leather costume with laced boots, corset, and mask, is discarded by the producers as too erotic.

Nevertheless, especially Diana Rigg becomes a leading figure of the British fetish and S&M subculture in the following years. The name „Mrs. Emma Peel“ is reportedly deduced from „Miss SM-Appeal“.

CITEd BY DACHS: Farren, Mick „The black leather jacket“ Abbeville Press New York 1985, p. 49

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1961 The Tool Box at 339 4th St. at Harrison in San Francisco opened. It took what Tony Taverosi had created at the Why Not and developed it into what became the classic SF leather bar design. The bar featured the Chuck Arnette mural of masculine men, which was made famous by the June 1964 Life magazine. Closed in 1971.

Photo of the Tool Box that appeared in Life Magazine with leather men in the foreground and Chuck Arnette's mural in the background.
1961 Moved by the Gayola scandals, Jose Sarria becomes the first openly gay man to run for San Francisco city supervisor. He does not get elected.
1961 Victim is the first film by a major British commercial studio to feature Homosexuality as its theme. Dirk Bogarde plays a closeted barrister in a plot about gay blackmail and suicide.
1962 The German sex researcher Hans Giese publishes his book Psychopathologie der Sexualitat, with the intent of continuing Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia sexualis. In the medical text book, which dedicates the first 30 pages to the importance of Christianity in sex therapy, he quotes the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sarte's theories on SM as research, and links sadomasochism to the rise in abortions. Giese's school of thought continues to dominate sex research in Germany until today. In 1992, three of the four professors for sex research in Germany will be former students of Giese.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The German sexologist Hans Giese publishes his textbook „Psychopathologie der Sexualität“ (psychopathology of sexuality), a continuation of Krafft-Ebing’s „Psychopathia sexualis“. The first 30 pages are dedicated to the importance of Christian beliefs for sexual medicine; he also links sadomasochism to the increase of the abortion ratio. Giese’s teachings dominate the German sexology until the 21. century, causing it to develop rather insularly from the rest of the world. In 1992, three out of four professorships for sexology in Germany are held by his students.

  • Giese, Hans: „Psychopathologie der Sexualität“. Enke, Stuttgart 1962
  • Haeberle, Erwin J.: „Sexualwissenschaft heute“. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, FEHLT 1992
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1962 Again, in response to the Gayola scandals and their aftermath, San Francisco bar owners and employees form the Tavern Guild, to wield political influence.
1962 Fisting is "invented" in a San Francisco basement.
1962 Satyr MC holds it's first Badger Flats Run. The annual event continues uninterrupted for 33 years, until 1994. Then resumes in 1998!
1962 Publication of King Rat by James Clavell. The novel explores dominance in men's relationships in a Japanese prison camp during WWII.
1962 Otto Preminger's film of Alan Drury's novel Advise and Consent, is the first movie explicitly showing a gay bar.
ADDENDUM: Publication of Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals by American psychoanalyst Irving Bieber (1909–1991.) Bieber argues that Homosexuality is an acquired condition.

According to the New York Times:

In 1962 he headed a team of colleagues that published "Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytical Study of Male Homosexuals" (Basic Books), a nine-year study of 106 gay men. The study, the largest and most extensive on the origins of Homosexuality at that time, held that disruptions in family relationships early in life contributed to a child's homosexual development. It concluded: "A constructive, supportive, warmly related father precludes the possibility of a homosexual son; he acts as a neutralizing, protective agent should the mother make seductive or close-binding attempts."

Dr. Bieber's study helped bring candor to the discussion of Homosexuality, but his view of it as deviant behavior was controversial even then and has since been disavowed. In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association removed Homosexuality from its list of psychiatric disorders, but Dr. Bieber remained steadfast, telling an interviewer the same year that "a homosexual is a person whose heterosexual function is crippled, like the legs of a polio victim."

CITE: Myers, Steven L. "Irving Bieber, 80, a Psychoanalyst Who Studied Homosexuality, Dies." New York Times (New York), August 28, 1991. https://www.nytimes.com/1991/08/28/nyregion/irving-bieber-80-a-psychoanalyst-who-studied-Homosexuality-dies.html.

contrib. Ambrosio Jan. 2023.
1962, Jan. 1 Effective this date Illinois repeals its sodomy laws and behavior between "consenting adults in private" is no longer subject to criminal prosecution.
1962, Nov. "Birth" of Phil Andros as Sam Steward, writing for eos and amigos magazines of Denmark, uses this pseudonym for the first time.
1963 Denmark becomes the first modern state to drop virtually all censorship.
1963 Publication of "The Velvet Underground," a paperbook book by Michael Leigh
  • A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess, a novel that gives a look at sex, violence, and mind control in a future age.
  • City of Night by John Rechy, a novel that takes a close look at the underbelly of gay life: hustling as it was.
  • Our Lady of the Flowers, Jean Genet's first English edition
  • Pleasures of the Torture Chamber by Johnathon Swain.
  • Flagellation - The Rod & The Whip by George Bishop.
  • The Velvet Underground by Michael Leigh.
1963 Physique Pictorial begins to print a scribbled code of astrological symbols along with its photographs. The symbols give Bob Mizer's ideas about the personalities, and sexual proclivities, of the models. A code sheet to decipher them is sent to favored customers. In 1967 the symbols are used as part of the sexual pandering case against Mizer. He destroys all copies of the code's meanings.
1963 Scott Studio, one of the best physique photography studios closes when Tom Nichol, the owner and photographer, moves from London to California. Nichol is noted for early (before 1950) photos of men in boots, leather, biker caps, etc. and for the infamous "Scott Shorts," thin white gym style shorts always at least two sizes too small for his models, who somehow squeezed into them.
1963, Feb. Publication of the first (and only) issue of Young Adonis magazine, the first to have substantial full color. The cover trumpets "24 photos in color" and "More Color than any other magazine!"
1963, May Mars magazine, a male physique publication with leather leanings, begins publication. It is designed and edited by Chuck Renslow and Dom Orejudos of Kris studios
1963, Sept. 15 Second City Motorcycle Club founded in Chicago.
1964 The opening of the NYC World's Fair is preceded by a "cleanup" of gay bars, shutting down every one in the city except Julius' in the village.
1964 Publication of
  • Rough Trade by Lou Rand.
  • Stockade a novel by Jack Pearl which focuses on abuse in a military prison.
  • With Rod and Whip, A History of Flagellation Among Different Nations by Valhalla Books.
  • A History of Torture by Daniel P. Manix.
  • Flagellation Curiosa Pt. 1: Sublime of Flagellation, by H. T. Buckle,
  • Pt. 2: Experiences in Flagellation, Compiled by an Amateur Flagellant, American edition
1964 US courts allow importation of Danish magazines showing full frontal male nudity if they are official publications of nudist organizations. International Nudist Sun is the most popular all male title, many others feature only women or both men and women.
1964, June 26 Life magazine features "Homosexuality in America," a fourteen-page article by Paul Welch that includes a two page spread on the Tool Box, San Francisco's premier leather bar, and sparks a migration of eager leathermen to "Baghdad by the Bay."
ADDENDUM: the two page photo spread from Life magazine
IMAGE SOURCE: Life magazine June 26, 1964.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1963, Oct.
ADDENDUM: The film Scorpio Rising premieres at the Gramercy Arts Theater in New York City. Kenneth Anger shot, edited, co-wrote (with Ernest D. Glucksman), and directed the short film. It features themes of the occult, biker subculture, Homosexuality, Christianity, and Nazism.

The American Nazi party protests the film at an art theater in Los Angeles. As a result, the police arrest the theater manager for public obscenity and cancels the film's run. Eventually the case goes to the California Supreme Court where it it decided in Anger's favor.

SEE ALSO: American Leather Goes Mainstream: Anger, Arnett and Life Magazine by Chris M.

contrib. Ambrosio April 3, 2023.
1964 The first appearance of Al "A. Jay" Shapiro's cartoon creation, "Harry Chess", in the Philadelphia based gay monthly Drum.
1964 Empire City MC founded in NYC and holds first Empire City Christmas Party and Toys for Tots.
1964 Recon MC founded in San Francisco.
1964 Society for Individual Rights (SIR) founded in San Francisco.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

„The Erotic Minorities / A Sexual Bill of Rights“, a book by the Swedish psychiatrist Lars Ullerstam, is published in the German translation. The unusually liberally arguing author defends the right of every human to live out individual sexual differences, as long as the society does not sustain damage. „About algolagny (Lust of pain)“, he writes, „we do know as good as nothing, even though there had been written about it a lot. (...) The only certain knowledge about algolagny that we possess is the knowledge that it holds huge possibilities for happiness in it.“

For many decades, Ullerstam’s book is one of the most open-minded ones about sexual diversity.

CITED by DACHS: Ullerstam, Lars: „Die sexuellen Minderheiten“. Kala Verlag, Hamburg 1965

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1965, Apr. Second City MC founded in Chicago. The first such club in the Midwest.
1965 Grove Press issues the first English edition of Pauline Reage's The Story of O.
1965 In New York City, Steve Masters (real name Mike Miksche, a highly respected fashion artist) one of the most talented homoerotic, and leather oriented, artists, and publisher of the Physique Magazine, BIG, commits suicide. His wife finds the studio where he worked on his erotica, and had sm scenes with other men, and burns most of his art. Fortunately he had already donated much work to Kinsey, for whom he had performed SM scenes with Sam Steward.
ADDENDUM: Samuel M. Steward recounts an encounter with Steve Masters for the benefit of Dr. Kinsey in "Dr Kinsey Takes a Peek at S/M: A Reminiscence" in Thompson, Mark (editor). 1991. Leatherfolk -- Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice. 1st ed. Boston: Alyson Books..

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1965 Publication of
  • Quatrefoil by James Barr, a novel of sex among men in the US Navy.
  • Madame deSade in Japan, a play by Yukio Mishima. First English publication in 1967.
  • The Lonely Sex - Mail Order Vice by Carlson Wade.
1965 Formation of Saddlemasters MC and Saddlebacks of Orange County both in California and of SixtyNine Club in London, England.
1965 On the Levee a bar at 987 Embarcadero in San Francisco becomes popular with the leather crowd. Closed in 1972.
1965, Late A new physique magazine, Butch, produces its first issue, filled with unidentified frontally nude male photos from Arts Unlimited. Virtually simultaneously Drum an activist gay magazine published in Philadelphia prints, in the copies of its January 1966 issue that goes to subscribers, but not to those sent to newsstands, the first full frontal male nudes that are not presented in the guise of anthropological study or nudist culture.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The American professor for philosophy John Frederick Lange Jr., better known under his pseudonym John Norman, publishes the book „Tarnsman of Gor“. In the following novels, the planet Gor is described in detail, on which women are subjugated to men. The jacket design of the first editions is made by the fantasy artist Boris Vallejo. Some terms of the Gor universe are adopted by sadomasochists. The German translations are either directly indexed by the BPjS, or published only in strongly shortened versions; until September 1989, 11 out of 19 books published in German are indexed.

  • Schlagzeilen, Vol. 4, September 1989, p. 30-31
  • Nicholls, Peter „The Science Fiction Encyclopedia“, Dolphin Books New York 1979, p. 430
  • Vallejo, Boris „The Fantastic Art of Boris Vallejo“, Ballantine Books New York 1978
  • für jugendgefährdende Schriften, Bundesprüfstelle (Ed.): „Gesamtverzeichnis indizierter Bücher, Taschenbücher, Broschüren und Comics“ 1993, p. 28


contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1966 CMC (California Motorcycle Club) rents Sefarer's International Union hall for their annual CMC Carnival, thanks primarily to Don Rotan who was a member of both CMC and the Sefarer's union.
1966 Barbary Coasters MC formed in San Francisco.
1966 Jose Sarria, "The Widow Norton," becomes the first "Empress of San Francisco," and the gay Court System has begun.
1966 Publication of
  • Song of the Loon by Richard Amory, the first of a trilogy of erotic novels that took the American fascination with Cowboys and Indians to a whole new level.
  • Sadism by Andre Tarade.
1966 The American gynecologists William H. Masters and Virginia Johnson publish their study on the Human Sexual Response.

Doctors Masters & Johnson conducts a scientific study comparing clitorial and vaginal orgasms. They conclude that both types were essentially the same in regards to sexual response. They argue that clitoral stimulation is necessary for most woman to reach orgasm.

This contradicts Freud’s theory of an "orgasm hierarchy" which decreed that clitoral orgasms were “adolescent” and indicative of sexual and psychological immaturity while vaginal orgasm are superior, more powerful, and indicated sexual and psychological maturity.

contrib. Ambrosio Feb. 16, 2023.
1966 The first complete male to female genital confirmation surgery in the US takes place at Johns Hopkins University Hospital.
1966, January 21
ADDENDUM: The January 21, 1966 issue of Time Magazine contains The Homosexual in America. It's outlook is similar to the earlier Life magazine article and covers much of the same ground.

Leather bars only get a brief mention.

As André Gide pointed out long ago from personal experience, there are several varieties of homosexuals that the heterosexual world lumps together but that "feel an irrepressible loathing for one another." Today in the U.S., there are "mixed" bars where all homosexuals, male and female, are persona grata; "cuff-linky" bars that cater to the college and junior-executive type; "swish" bars for the effeminates and "hair fairies" with their careful coiffures; "TV" bars, which cater not to television fans but to transvestites; "leather" bars for the tough-guy types with their fondness for chains and belts; San Francisco's new "Topless Boys" discotheques, featuring bare-chested entertainers. San Francisco and Los Angeles are rivals for the distinction of being the capital of the gay world; the nod probably goes to San Francisco.

CORRECTION: Previously, the date for this event was incorrectly listed as June 21, 1966.

contrib. Ambrosio April 19, 2023.
1966, Feb. North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO) meets in Kansas City. It quickly deteriorates into a vicious fight among organizations with differing objectives and strategies. All of the elements of today's PC wars were there, and doing battle.
1966, July 25 FeBe's opens on Folsom in San Francisco and quickly becomes one of the leading leather bars, particularly for members of motorcycle clubs. The bar's "leather David" logo (the original a plaster sculpture by Mike Caffee) becomes a leather icon. A Taste of Leather, upstairs at FeBe's, opens in 1967 as one of the first in-bar leather shops. FeBe's closes in 1986.
Two Davids: Michelangelo Buonarroti's David and  Mike Caffee's 'Leather' David
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In France, Luis Buñuel picturizes the novel „Belle de Jour“ by Joseph Kessel (1929), starring Catherine Deneuve. The well-situated middle-class woman Séverine (Deneuve) secretly works in a luxury brothel to fulfill her masochistic wishes, which her husband Pierre is neither able to understand nor to fulfill.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1967, Jan. 1 Los Angeles Police raid the Black Cat, the incident "boosted the modest PRIDE newsletter into The Advocate."
1967 The "Summer of Love" in San Francisco
1967 Publication of
  • Eustace Chisholm and the Works a novel by James Purdy.
  • Numbers by John Rechy, a novel exploring the gay male obsession with accumulating tricks.
  • Brutality Through the Ages by John Swain.
  • Sexual Sadism - The Pleasure of Inflicting Pain by Edward Podolsky MD and Carlson Wade.
  • Erotic Variations by John Barry.
  • Sex and Sadism by Val Vane.
1967 A survey that questions 643 Germans on their attitudes towards sexual deviant groups shows that sadists are seen as egotistical, aggressive, revolting, unsympathetic, wild, unbalanced, strict, dominating, hard, active, cold, sick, introverted, pedantic, and close-mouthed. They are associated with the stereotypes of murderers and pimps. Homosexuals, themselves still considered deviant, and students have slightly less negative attitudes. Attitudes towards masochists are not examined.
1967 Bob Mizer of Athletic Model Guild is arrested and charged with running a male prostitution ring because of his first concept of AMG as a referral service for models. He is convicted and for most of 1968 Physique Pictorial fails to appear and Mizer, who hated to travel, is not at home.
1967 Formation of Cheaters MC and Constantines of the Bay Area, both in San Francisco.
1967 Barbary Coasters present their first annual San Francisco Motorcycle Awards.
1967 Leather Jacket Label From FEBE'S Taste Of Leather Shop Nick O'Demus opens his A Taste Of Leather shop upstairs at FeBe's. One of the first in bar leather shops.
1967, Jan 10
ADDENDUM: The Look magazine issue for January 10, 1967 includes an article by Jack Star entitled The Sad 'Gay' Life. It goes over much of the same ground as the 1964 Life magazine report on "Homosexuality in America" except the leather bar in Look is located in Chicago instead of San Fransico.

Chicago has more than 40 gay bars. One on North Clark Street, a short taxi ride from the Loop, has motorcycles parked outside; it is a "leather bar." Large murals of muscular motorcyclists fill the walls. In the back is a pool table where rough-looking youths in leather jackets wait for a "trick" to come in. A sign on the wall says: "Every Tuesday is leather night—beer 25 cents if you wear leather jackets, pants or shirt." A guard from a private watch service, with a gun strapped his hip, circles around the room.

contrib. Ambrosio April 28, 2023.
Cover and full page closeup photo of a leatherman in profile from "Look" magazine
1967, Jul. 26 The United States Federal Court for the District of Minnesota upholds a landmark decision affirming the right of all persons to receive materials dealing with the nude male figure.
ADDENDUM: The case is Directory Services, Inc., Appellant, v. United States of America, Appellee, 353 F.2d 299 (8th Cir. 1965)
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1967, July 27 The Sexual Offenses Act, removing criminality from sexual relations between consenting adults, an action which had been recommended by the Wolfenden Report in 1958, finally becomes law in England and Wales.
1967, Aug. The newsletter of PRIDE (Personal Rights in Defense and Education) becomes The Los Angles Advocate.
1967, Aug. The third national North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO) meets in Washington, D.C., with friction between East Coast and West Coast representatives.
1967, Oct. 9 The film I am Curious - Yellow premiers in Stockholm. It will become a major example of sexual liberation in the US.
1967, Nov. 17 The Oscar Wilde Book Shop, the first gay and lesbian store of it's kind, opens in New York City. For years all SM publications are banned from the store.
CORRECTION: According Jay Shockley of the NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project, Fred Sargeant (who was Craig Rodwell's boyfriend for a time and manager of the first bookshop) states that wasn't quite true. He said:

There was no prohibition regarding S&M texts. I recall there was one book that was popular for a time but I don't recall the title. It was carried in our mail order catalog.

This myth may have its origins with the shop not carrying skin or muscle magazines. Back then there were ample sources for such publications, and not just in Times Square's seedy magazine shops. The racier publications were Mafia sourced and we made a business decision to stay away from any mob connection, as our leafletting at the time of Stonewall will affirm.

On occasion, people who were self publishing would offer their work. We had limited space and could not take everything offered. I can see where someone may have misconstrued a refusal with a judgment. I hope this is of help.

contrib. AstridAegis Jan. 17, 2023.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

In the USA, the APA publishes the second edition of its diagnostic manual (DSM-II). It is even stronger aligned to psychoanalysis as the DSM-I. Homosexuality is now even officially listed as mental illness. Masochism and sadism are listed as „sexual deviations“. And for the first time, the DSM-II is combined with the 8. edition of the „International Classification of Diseases“ (ICD-8).

By connecting sexual deviations with a compendium of illnesses from the 19. century, this concept once again backs up several outdated ideas about human sexual behavior.

  • American Psychiatric Association (Ed.): „Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Second Edition (DSM-II)“. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C. 1968
  • Shorter, Edward: „A History of Psychiatry“. John Wiley, New York 1997, p. 299
  • Noyes, John K.: „The Mastery of Submission“. Cornell University Press, Ithaca et al. 1997, p. 19

SEE ALSO: Some Notes on Psychology, Homosexuality, and Sadomasochism

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1968 Off the Levee is opened at 527 Bryant in San Francisco by the owner of the leather bar "On The Levee". This location later becomes the leather friendly bar and restaurant Chez Mollet.
1968 The Ramrod at 1225 Folsom in San Francisco, opened and quickly succeeded FeBe's as THE leather bar, at least for the SM crowd, while FeBe's remained the prime bar for MC club socializing.
1968 Formation of Buddy MC and Warriors MC in California, Nine Plus and Cycle MC in New York City; Serpents in San Francisco; Spartan MC in Baltimore and Washington DC; SMCLA, later changed to Lost Angels, in DC; V Senses Rubber Club in NYC; Rocky Mountaineers MC in Denver; and Texas Riders MC, originally the Warlocks and later the Cobras, in Houston.
1968 Cycle MC holds first annual Bass River Run.
1968 Metropolitan Community Church founded in Los Angeles by Rev. Troy Perry, a leatherman.
SEE ALSO: Summer of ’68: The Founding of UFMCC by Rev. Troy D. Perry (Sep 01, 1998)

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1968 In New York City several leather friendly bars, restaurants and private clubs open. These include: The Hayloft private club; The International Stud bar, JB's Restaurant, OK Corral dining room; the Skull after hours bar; the Tool Box bar; and the Nine Plus clubhouse on 21st St. Louie's Bar is renamed Louie's Spartan Lounge.
1968 Cycle MC begins publication of it's newsletter Wheels and Nine Plus begins publication of its Scimitar. New York Motor Bike Club publishes last issue of its Black and Blue.
1968 Alan Selby begins Mr. S Leathers in London, England.
1968 Publication of
  • The Agency, and its sequel, The Agent, two novels of explicit SM by David Meltzer.
  • The Figa by Paul Mariah, a poem paean to fisting.
  • The Real Thing by William Carney (birth Dec 29 1946) is published by Putnam's, a major publishing house.
ADDENDUM: In The Leatherman's Handbook, Larry Townsend writes:

A landmark book for the leather set was William Carney's hardcover book, The Real Thing (Putname, 1968). This novel has such impact on the gay S & M scene that I have felt compelled to make reference to it several times in the proceeding chapters. Obviously I disagree with a number of Carney's statements, although I respect his ability as a writer. Despite the personal sacrifices I understand he had to make in publishing it, I do not believe he was describing a realistic sequence of events. His purism, and his attempt to categorize leathermen into ridgidly defined ranks, is an ivory tower approach to that falls on its face when you try to equate it with any person experience. I would recommend the work on its literary merit; I would not suggest that a novice take it to heart. (I might also note that my original copy, for which I paid $6, got away from me and I replaced it for $1 through Marboro's mail order service.)

The Real Thing will go out of print for decades, but Richard Kasak Books will publish a new edition in 1995.

SEE ALSO: slave david stein includes this novel in his partial bibliography, History of Our Leather-S/M-Fetish Subculture and Communities.

contrib. Ambrosio (with thanks to SimplyMichael on FL.) November 9, 2023
ADDENDUM: Following the work of Masters and Johnson in the previous year, Jane Gerhard writes the essay "The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm" further challenging Freud’s theory of the inferiority of the clitoral orgasm to the vaginal orgasm.

CITE: Anne Koedt. Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm.

contrib. Ambrosio April 16, 2023.
1968, Jan. Under pressure to abandon its militant roots, PRIDE was dissolved by its founders, who sold The Advocate to Dick Michaels, Sam Winston and Bill Rand for one dollar.
1968, Jan. Der Kreis, the world's oldest known homophile publication, headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, ceases publication after thirty five years.
1968, March An Orange County man looses his home and auto insurance after a neighbor sees him kiss a man in his backyard. The neighbor reports the incident to the police, who contact the man's insurance company.
1968, April 14 Mort Crowley's play, The Boys in the Band opens in New York City. (Birth Aug. 21, 1935)
1968, Aug. A dedication to militant law reform and a formalization in structure sweeps thorough the North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO) which meets in Chicago.
1968, Aug. LA police raid the Patch II, a gay bar in Wilmington, leading flower laden gays to raid the Harbor Police Station and help start MCC and two other major organizations.
ADDENDUM: Acording to a Wikipedia article about the Patch bar:

The Patch was managed and owned by comedian Lee Glaze, who was known in the gay scene by his club name "The Blond Darling". The Patch had a clientele of gay men and women that included many women from the local roller derby circuit.

Glaze had been warned repeatedly by the police department (LAPD) that in order for him to stay open for business he must prohibit drag acts, groping, physical contact and male-male dancing, and not allow more than one person at a time in the restrooms.

Glaze initially tried to comply with police demands, but this caused his business to begin to fail. Glaze decided to covertly reject the police orders and would instead warn the patrons that under-cover police were in the bar by putting the song "GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" on the juke box. The patrons would know to comply with the police rules, until Glaze would indicate the coast was clear.

One weekend in August 1968, the bar was packed with gay men and women when vice squad officers burst in, followed by a phalanx of six LAPD officers, demanding IDs and making several arbitrary arrests. For Lee, that was several arrests too many.

Outraged, Glaze impulsively leapt on stage, grabbed the microphone and yelled "It's not against the law to be homosexual and it's not a crime to be in a gay bar!" That was the spark that changed another police raid into a political rally. Glaze called for the patrons to chant, "Fight for your rights" and "We are Americans too!" at the police.[1] He told the crowd that he and The Patch management would underwrite the cost to bail anyone arrested out of jail and pay their attorney fees.

Glaze led the crowd to the flower shop up the street and he bought out all the flowers (excluding pansies) and gave them out to all the demonstrators before he led them on a 3:00am "flower power style" demonstration at the Harbor Division Police Station.

The officers behind the desk were caught off guard and called for reinforcements to fend off the growing crowd of gay demonstrators and thereby keep them outside until the men who had been arrested made bail and were released.[1] The raids on The Patch and the Black Cat Tavern affected Rev. Troy Perry, a Gay Pentecostal Minister from rural Tennessee. Rev. Perry was present at the raid on The Patch with his boyfriend Tony Valdez. Tony was one of the men arrested and held in jail by the LAPD. Upon his release, after spending the night in jail, he said to Rev. Perry "God doesn't care about us."[6] Rev. Perry's empathy for the inconsolable Valdez stirred him to the realization that he should form "a church for all of us who are outcasts".

In October 1968, Rev. Troy Perry formed the Metropolitan Community Church with the first congregation consisting of just twelve men and women gathered in his living room. The congregation today has grown to over 43,000 members.

CITED by Wikipedia:
  • Los Angeles Advocate (Volume 2 #9, September 1968) cover article "'Patch' Raids Police Station: Cops Join Hoods in Harassing Bar" by Dick Michaels
  • "Eulogy for Lee Glaze". 17 December 2013.
  • Today In History, 1968: The Flower Power Protest Against Los Angeles Police.
  • “Patch Fights Three-Way Battle.” The Los Angeles Advocate (September 1968): 3, 25.
  • “Courage Catches On.” The Los Angeles Advocate (September 1968): 5.
  • Dick Michaels. “Cops Join Hoods in Harassing Bar.” The Los Angeles Advocate (September 1968): 5-6.
  • Lee Glaze. Letter to the editor. The Los Angeles Advocate (October 1968): 19-20.
  • Faderman, Lillian; Timmons, Stuart (2006). Gay L.A.: a history of sexual outlaws, power politics, and lipstick lesbians. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02288-5.
  • Swicegood, Tom (2003). Our God Too: Biography of a Church and a Temple. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-27396-6.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1968, Sept. Demanding equal access to the Yellow Pages, San Francisco homophile groups lodge a complaint with the California Public Utilities Commission asking for a separate listing of "Homophile Groups," the phone company accedes in August 1971, after several years of court struggles.
1968, Dec. The New Jersey Supreme Court rules that homosexuals have the right to assemble in public, overturning the revocation of three New Jersey bars' licenses for "permitting apparent homosexual to congregate."
ADDENDUM: The case is One Eleven Wines & Liquors, Inc. v. Div. Alcoholic Bev. Cont.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969 Time magazine declares 1969 "The Year of the Newly Militant Homosexual."
REQUEST: I haven't yet found a citation in which this quotation appears in TIME magazine. I couldn't find it in the three articles in the Oct. 31, 1969 issue. (Although, I found something close in that issue: Their new militancy makes other citizens edgy.)

The text "new militancy was developing among homosexuals" would appear in Thousands of Homosexuals Hold A Protest Rally in Central Park, a news story by Lacey Fosburgh which appeared in the New York Times on June 29, 1970.

If anyone can provide an attribute to the primary source for the exact quotr, I'd appreciate it.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969 Fred Halsted meets Joey Yale at the Black Pipe, a Los Angeles leather bar. They make the film LA Plays Itself, with explicit SM scenes, and begin a lifelong relationship.
1969 Publication of
  • Return to the Chateau by Pauline Reage in France, a sequel to The Story of O. US edition published in 1971.
  • Leather, The Leather Queens, and several similar erotic novels by Dirk Vaden.
  • $tud, the first Phil Andros novel written by Samuel Steward and published by Guild Press.
  • Flagellation & The Flagellants - A History of the Rod by Rev. Wm. A. Cooper, BA, American edition.
  • The Homosexual Handbook by Josef Bush, which includes the names of people the author suspects of being gay. The publisher quickly recalls and destroys 7000 copies, then reprints the book omitting only one name: J. Edgar Hoover.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

Under the pseudonym Pauline Réage, the novel „Retour à Roissy“ („Return to the Chateau“) is published in France, a sequel to the novel „Story of O“. This second part is considered to be much weaker than the first one, and has no influence on the subculture. The BPjS indexes the book in May 1982.

CITED by DACHS: "Return to the Chateau" cover
  • Réage, Pauline: „Rückkehr nach Roissy“. Melzer, Darmstadt 1969
  • Deforges, Regine / Réage, Pauline: „Die O hat mir erzählt. Hintergründe eines Bestsellers“. Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung, München 1976
  • Stutzer, Dietmar: „Pauline Réage ist tot – die O lebt“. Schlagzeilen, (41), 1998, pp. 46–47
  • Deunan, Wolf: „Zum Tod von Pauline Réage“. Schlagzeilen, (41), 1998, pp. 48–49
  • für jugendgefährdende Schriften, Bundesprüfstelle (Ed.): „Gesamtverzeichnis indizierter Bücher, Taschenbücher, Broschüren und Comics“ 1993, p. 31

Also published that year: Kiss of Leather by Larry Townsend.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969 American anthropologist Paul Gebhard publishes his article on Fetishism and Sadomasochism, placing SM in a cultural context. SM is seen as a result of cultural forces and as a form of scripted behavior. Gebhard's break with the view of SM founded by Krafft-Ebbing and Freud paves the way for sociological studies on SM.
ADDENDUM: According to the English version of the "Datenschlag Chronicle of Sadomasochismus (DACHS)":

The US anthropologist Paul Gebhard publishes a study on „Fetishism and Sadomasochism“, in which S&M is put in a cultural context. Sadomasochism is seen as the result of cultural influences and „scripted behavior“ (a kind of role-play behavior). This study is the first one to break with Krafft-Ebing’s ideas again, and paves the way for sociological research studies on S&M.

CITED by DACHS: Weinberg, Thomas S. „Sadomasochism. Studies in Dominance and Submission“ Prometheus Books, p. 20

The article is GEBHARD, PAUL H., “Fetishism and Sadomasochism”, Science and Psychoanalysis, Vol. XV (1969) 71-80. In it he writes

Sadomasochism is embedded in our culture since our culture operates on the basis of dominance-submission relationships and aggression is socially valued. Even our gender relationships have been formulated in a framework conducive to sadomasochism: the male is supposed to be dominant and aggressive sexually and the female reluctant or submissive.

Other papers by Paul Gebhard include:
  • Gebhard, P.H. (1969). Misconceptions about female prostitutes. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 3(3):24, 28-30.
  • Gebhard, P.H. (1969). Why Chant d'Amour was banned. Censorship Today, 2(4):17-19.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969 Formation of Apollos, Commanders MC, UYA MC and Wheels MC in NYC; Border Riders MC in Seattle & Vancouver BC; Vanguards MC in Philadelphia; Vikings MC in Boston and the AAMC, the Atlantic Midwest Coordinating Council, lather the Atlantic Motorcycle Coordinating Council. In London England V Senses Rubber club becomes Rubber Man's Club of London.
1969 Newsletters are first published by several clubs: The Longship from Vikings MC (ceases publication 1970); Innertube from V Senses Rubber; and Tread from Wheels MC.
1969 The Den bar opens in New York City.
1969 The Shed becomes Boston's leather-levi bar.
1969 The Leather Cell (a leather and toy shop) opens in the basement, "The Pit", of the Gold Coast in Chicago.
ADDENDUM: Larry Townsend founded the Homophile Effort for Legal Protection (H.E.L.P.) in Los Angeles to bail out and defend gays who had been entrapped and arrested by the L.A.P.D.

contrib. Ambrosio April 16, 2023.
1969, Jan. Bob Mizer brings out Physique Pictorial Natural introducing both color and frontal nudity to his publication.
1969, Jan. Members of the Danish parliament considered a bill to legalize marriages between homosexuals; the bill will be defeated and reintroduced annually until it is finally passed in 1989.
1969, Feb. The Correctional Association of New York called for an end to the state's criminal statutes against abortion, prostitution, and Homosexuality.
1969, April Chain Male #1, one of the BEST gay male SM/bondage photo-books is published.
1969, May Pat Rocco's nude ballet film, A Breath of Love, is accepted for screening at the San Francisco Film Festival.
1969, May West Germany decriminalizes male homosexual acts between men over 21. East Germany had repealed its antigay law a year earlier.
1969, May 25
ADDENDUM: The film Midnight Cowboy is released. As Tony DeBlase writes earlier in this timeline, John Schlesinger's film is kicked to pieces by the critics for being too gay, and by militant gays for not being gay enough.

Trailer for John Schlesinger's film starring Dustin Hoffman, Jon Voight, Sylvia Miles, John McGiver, Brenda Vaccaro, Barnard Hughes, Ruth White, Jennifer Salt, Gilman Rankin, T. Tom Marlow, George Eppersen, Al Scott, Linda Davis, J.T. Masters,

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, June After 32 years, the statue of David at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Cypress, California, has its fig leaf removed.
1969, June 27 Judy Garland is buried. Memorial services are held in New York City.
1969, June 28 New York City Police raid the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar on Christopher St. near 7th Ave. triggering riots that last several nights, and becoming the seminal event in public awareness of the fight for gay rights.
1969, June 29 "Four Policemen Hurt in Village Raid" reported the New York Times, on page 33.
ADDENDUM: Here is the entire text of the news story.

Four Policemen Hurt in Village Raid

Melee Near Sheridan Square Follows Action At Bar

Hundreds of young men went on a rampage in Greenwich Village shortly after 3 a.m. yesterday after a force of plainclothes men raided a bar that the police said was well known for its homosexual clientele. Thirteen persons were arrested and four policemen injured.

The young men threw bricks, bottles, garbage, pennies and a parking meter at the policemen, who had a search warrant authorizing them to investigate reports that liquor was sold illegally at the bar, the Stonewall Inn, 53 Christopher Street, just off Sheridan Square.

Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine said that a large crowd formed in the square after being evicted from the bar. Police reinforcements were sent to the area to hold off the crowd.

Plainclothes men and detectives confiscated cases of liquor from the bar, which Inspector Pine said was operating without a liquor license.

The police estimated that 200 young men had expelled from the bar. The crowd grew to close to 400 during the melee, which lasted about 45 minutes, they said.

Arrested in the melee, was David Van Ronk, 33 years old, of 15 Sheridan Square, a well known folk singer. He was accused of having thrown a heavy object at a patrolman and later paroled on his own recognizance.

The raid was one of three held on Village bars in the last two weeks, Inspector Pine said.

Charges against the 13 who were arrested ranged from harassement and resisting arrest to disorderly conduct. A patrol man suffered a broken wrist, the police said.

Throngs of young men congregated outside the inn last night, reading alound comdemnations of the police.

A sign on the door said "This is a private club. Members only." Only soft drinks were being served.

The news item as it appeared on page 33 of the New York Times on Jun 29, 1969

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, June 30
ADDENDUM: "Police Again Rout ‘Village’ Youths," reports the New York Times on June 30, 1969 on Page 22:


Outbreak by 400 Follows a Near-Riot Over Raid

Heavy police reinforcements cleared the Sheridan Square area of Greenwich Village again yesterday morning when large crowds of young men, angered by a police raid on an inn frequented by homosexuals, swept through the area.

Tactical Patrol Force units assigned to the East Village poured into the area about 2:15 A.M. after units from the Charles Street station house were unable to control a crowd of about 400 youths, some of whom were throwing bottles and lighting small fires. Their arms linked, a row of helmeted policemen stretching across the width of the street made several sweeps up and down Christopher Street between the Avenue of the Americas and Seventh Avenue South.

The crowd retreated before them, but many groups fled into the numerous small side streets and re-formed behind the police line. The police were not withdrawn until 4 A-M.

A number of people who did not retreat fast enough were pushed and shoved along, and at least two men were clubbed to the ground.

Stones and bottles were thrown at the police lines, and the police twice broke ranks and charged into the crowd. Three persons were arrested on charges of harassment and disorderly conduct.

The crowd had gathered in the evening across the street from the Stonewall Inn at 53 Christopher Street, where the police staged a raid early Saturday. The police were denounced by last night's crowd for allegedly harassing homosexuals. Graffiti on the boardedup windows of the inn included: “Support gay power” and “Legalize gay bars." Saturday’s raid took place when about 200 people were in the bar. Plainclothes men, with a warrant authorizing a search for illegal sales of alcohol, confiscated cases of liquor and beer.

A melee involving about 400 youths ensued, a partial riot mobilization was ordered by Police Headquarters, and 13 persons were arrested on a number of charges. Four policemen were injured, one suffering a broken wrist. Among those arrested was Dave Van Ronk. a folk singer.

New York Times newspaper article
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, July Reporting on the Stonewall riots, TIME magazine says, "The love that once dared not speak its name now can't seem to keep its mouth shut."
CORRECTION: The quote didn't appear in TIME Magazine in 1969 and it can not be attributed to the magazine's editorial or reporting staff.

It was a reader's response made to a story from the September 8, 1975 issue --- six years after the incident. In the Forum feature (i.e., a "Letter to the Editors" type page.) In the September 29, 1975 issue, Althea L. Hart of Kenosha, WI, wrote Homosexuality ... was once called 'the love that dare not speak its name.' Now it won't shut up.

(That is simlar to a quotation attributed to Canadian novelist Robertson Davies. But if he truly said or wrote it, I haven't found the primary source. It's very likely another misattribution.)

It's doubtful that Ms. Hart was referring specifically to the Stonewall Riot. While the magazine briefly mentioned the events in an Oct. 31, 1969 article, it didn't name the bar where it started. The riot wasn't mentioned at all in the 1975 issue that Ms. Hart was responding to. According to TIME magazine's website, It wasn’t until 1979, in an article about the great progress that movement had made, that TIME first mentioned the name of the bar where it began.

SEE ALSO: Two Loves by Lord Alfred Douglas

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, July 1 US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia holds that Homosexuality does not automatically disqualify a government employee for continuing in his job.
1969, July The Gay Liberation Front is formed in New York City.
1969, Aug. North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO) meets, again in Kansas City.
1969, Aug. Alaska's Supreme Court rules the term "crime against nature" unconstitutional.
1969, Oct. A National Institutes of Health Task Force on Homosexuality, headed by Dr. Evelyn Hooker, submits its report favoring the decriminalization of Homosexuality.
ADDENDUM: Here's coverage from a TIME Magazine news story published on October 24th:

A far-reaching report on Homosexuality for the Federal Government's National Institute of Mental Health, released this week, maintains that such hostility is unjustified by any dangers that Homosexuality may pose for society. The 14-member task force that prepared the report was headed by U.C.L.A.'s Evelyn Hooker, an erudite, compassionate psychologist who is one of the nation's most distinguished researchers in the field. A majority of the panel, which included psychiatrists, sociologists, anthropologists, lawyers and a theologian, urges states to abolish the laws that make homosexual intercourse a crime for consenting adults in private. More controversially, their report recommends that government and private employers "reassess" their current standards and implies that they should hire homosexuals who can pass normal screening procedures. (A three-man minority of the task force dissents, saying that research is still insufficient for making policy judgments.) The report is the first by any group under U.S. Government auspices to take this stance.

Says the report: "The extreme opprobrium that our society has attached to homosexual behavior has done more social harm than good, and goes beyond what is necessary for the maintenance of public order and human decency. Homosexuality presents a major problem for our society largely because of the amount of injustice and suffering entailed in it, not only for the homosexual but also for those concerned about him."

CITE: "Homosexuality: Coming to Terms" in TIME Magazine, Oct. 24, 1969.
contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, Oct. The University of Minnesota recognizes a club for gays and sympathizers called FREE (Fight Repression of Erotic Expression).
1969, Oct. 30 Film star Ramon Novarro is murdered in his Los Angeles mansion by Paul and Tom Ferguson, brothers and hustlers. Paul had previously modeled for Kris Studios. Rumor has it that the murder weapon was a metal dildo (gold in some stories, lead in others) given to Novaro by Rudolph Valentino.
1969, Oct. 31
Cover of October 31, 1969 issue of Time magazine.  Color-key montage by photographer Fred Burrell.  The face and figure of a 'young homosexual' who agreed to pose.

ADDENDUM: The October 31, 1969 issue of TIME Magazine reports on "The Homosexual in America" in three articles:

The first article states:

Their new militancy makes other citizens edgy, and it can be shrill. Hurling rocks and bottles and wielding a parking meter that had been wrenched out of the sidewalk, homosexuals rioted last summer in New York's Greenwich Village after police closed one of the city's 50 all-gay bars and clubs on an alleged liquor-law violation. Pressure from militant self-styled "homophiles" has forced political candidates' views about Homosexuality in to recent election campaigns in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles. Homosexuals have picketed businesses, the White House and the Pentagon, demanding an end to job discrimination.

Later on the article notes Most straight Americans still regard the invert with a mixture of revulsion and apprehension, to which some authorities have given the special diagnostic name of homosexual panic.

The article mentions the current thinking in the mental health field:

A violently argued issue these days is whether the confirmed homosexual is mentally ill. Psychoanalysts insist that Homosexuality is a form of sickness; most homosexuals and many experts counter that the medical concept only removes the already fading stigma of sin, and replaces it with the charge — even more pejorative nowadays — that Homosexuality is pathological.

The cover story was written by Contributing Editor Christopher Coy, researched by Madeleine Berry, and reported by Ruth Galein.

TIME Magazine would return to the topic with another cover story on September 8, 1975.

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, Nov. 14
TIME Magazine publishes Letters from its readers in response to the three articles about "The Homosexual in America" in the October 31, issue.

Donald H. Clark, a clinical psychologist in Ardsley, N.Y. wrote:

I have begun to see how the pressures to conform force young humans to squeeze individual self into a mold created by a popular myth of what "other people" think, believe and feel. It is the myth of the normal person. Squeezing self into the mold painfully denies some of the natural individual self, and one is left vaguely resentful and unhappy.

The loss of natural in pursuit of normal can be seen in a man's discomfort about physical expression of affection for another man. The urge is for affectional interchange that goes beyond the anesthetized handshake or the slap on the back. But there is fear that if affectional urges are freed, one may be seen by others and/or by himself as "queer."

Viewing Homosexuality as a "condition" uncovers our implicit belief that a natural part of self for many (perhaps most) men is bad because it does not fit our myth of the "normal" man. We live in a world where a man may kill another man but he may not kiss another man on the television screen viewed by our children. Natural urges thus emerge in ugly, distorted form.

In the name of sane humanity, let us stop our obsessive concern about Homosexuality as a condition. Let us stop nervously watching our children until they start dating. Let us encourage the search for natural self. Let us encourage expression of all varieties of affection before our denied and twisted desires murder us all in an acceptable war.

Henry Hay, founder and organizer of the first Mattachine Society (Los Angeles, 1949-53), argued that chauvinism was the root cause of homophobia and sexual harassment:

I call upon its many inheritors to abandon the culs-de-sac of sectarianism and special pleadings and make common cause with the many fronts of the Free Generation confronting the real enemy—male chauvinism!

Other than homosexuals and all womankind, not the least of its victims in our antagonistic society are the heterosexual males, themselves caught up in a chimera of superiority deriving from a culturally unconscious past. Chauvinism, in all its sexual as well as racial aspects, is the real enemy of all men and women who seek the one security that is viable—community—and the one freedom that is transcendant—individuation.

Veronica Marsland of Queens Village, N.Y. called for a diffrent approach.

God created woman for man, and for the perpetuation of the human race, otherwise, He would have created man alone. It is as simple as that. Homosexuals are hopelessly antiwoman, and to encourage their wantonness is to demean all women.

Perhaps society should adjure to the ancient law of putting to death all deviates.

C. Moore of Media, Pa. lyricized

Talk about sick! Look around once quick.
What did you see? The sickness, boy, is in you and me!
His thing doesn't kill, maim or addict.
His thing is love and that's not sick.

In a letter that anticipated the Leonard Matlovich cover story for the Sept. 8, 1975 issue of TIME, Seaman Anthony G. Lunde, U.S.N. gave his account of coming out to the Navy:

Last September, after three months in the U.S. Navy, I walked into a doctor's office on base. In a tear-filled outburst, I told him I am, had been, and will always be gay. The Navy is now processing my discharge under the heading of Fraudulent Enlistment.

A search for patriotism, fatherly favor, and stability prompted me to hide in the epitome of all-maleness, the military vacuum. Anguished realization that I was denying myself a firm part of my whole being forced me to tell the truth. I am grateful for your article, which has given me insight as to the kind of public reception I will receive when I no longer boast, "I am an American sailor," but cry out more proudly, I am an American homosexual.

S. M. Gibson of Williamsport, Pa. found the article mostly informative and objective but she was amused by the line that the homosexuals' new militancy makes other citizens edgy. She responded:

For centuries we have written your music and your literary masterpieces, painted your beautiful pictures, designed your clothing and home furnishings, danced and acted in your plays, styled your hair, and in general given you your highly prized American culture; if the truth be known, 95% of American culture is the homosexuals' culture.

Perhaps it is finally time we realize that we contribute to a society that despises us. We want our rights now, not 100 years from now. Try to visualize 12 million homosexual men and women marching on Washington.

Yes, edgy indeed.

Jane Afton Barry of Weston, Mass. suggested that those who judge homosexuals should keep in mind Poet Rod McKuen's words: 'It is not how we love or who we love but that we love.'

Finally, Nicole Lieberman of Weston, Mass. asked Since no one basiclly cares about whether or not the other fellow likes his steak rare or well done, or how many times he visits the bathroom, why all the fuss about how the other guy likes his sex? Is it anybody's business, really?

contrib. Ambrosio. late 2022.
1969, Dec. In a landmark decision, the California Supreme Court rules that the state cannot revoke a teacher's credentials over charges of homosexual conduct.
1969, Dec. Hawaii's state Penal Revision Project recommends that private homosexual activity be legalized.
1969, Dec. 21 Gay Activist Alliance founded in New York City.